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// Copyright (c) 2009-2010 Satoshi Nakamoto
// Copyright (c) 2009-2014 The Bitcoin Core developers
// Distributed under the MIT software license, see the accompanying
// file COPYING or
#if defined(HAVE_CONFIG_H)
#include "config/bitcoin-config.h"
#include "init.h"
#include "addrman.h"
#include "amount.h"
#include "chain.h"
#include "chainparams.h"
#include "checkpoints.h"
#include "compat/sanity.h"
#include "consensus/validation.h"
#include "key.h"
#include "main.h"
#include "miner.h"
#include "net.h"
#include "policy/policy.h"
#include "rpcserver.h"
#include "script/standard.h"
#include "scheduler.h"
#include "txdb.h"
#include "txmempool.h"
#include "ui_interface.h"
#include "util.h"
#include "utilmoneystr.h"
#include "utilstrencodings.h"
#include "validationinterface.h"
#include "wallet/db.h"
#include "wallet/wallet.h"
#include "wallet/walletdb.h"
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#ifndef WIN32
#include <signal.h>
#include <boost/algorithm/string/predicate.hpp>
#include <boost/algorithm/string/replace.hpp>
#include <boost/bind.hpp>
#include <boost/filesystem.hpp>
#include <boost/function.hpp>
#include <boost/interprocess/sync/file_lock.hpp>
#include <boost/thread.hpp>
#include <openssl/crypto.h>
using namespace std;
CWallet* pwalletMain = NULL;
bool fFeeEstimatesInitialized = false;
#ifdef WIN32
// Win32 LevelDB doesn't use filedescriptors, and the ones used for
// accessing block files don't count towards the fd_set size limit
// anyway.
/** Used to pass flags to the Bind() function */
enum BindFlags {
BF_NONE = 0,
BF_EXPLICIT = (1U << 0),
BF_REPORT_ERROR = (1U << 1),
BF_WHITELIST = (1U << 2),
static const char* FEE_ESTIMATES_FILENAME="fee_estimates.dat";
CClientUIInterface uiInterface; // Declared but not defined in ui_interface.h
// Shutdown
// Thread management and startup/shutdown:
// The network-processing threads are all part of a thread group
// created by AppInit() or the Qt main() function.
// A clean exit happens when StartShutdown() or the SIGTERM
// signal handler sets fRequestShutdown, which triggers
// the DetectShutdownThread(), which interrupts the main thread group.
// DetectShutdownThread() then exits, which causes AppInit() to
// continue (it .joins the shutdown thread).
// Shutdown() is then
// called to clean up database connections, and stop other
// threads that should only be stopped after the main network-processing
// threads have exited.
// Note that if running -daemon the parent process returns from AppInit2
// before adding any threads to the threadGroup, so .join_all() returns
// immediately and the parent exits from main().
// Shutdown for Qt is very similar, only it uses a QTimer to detect
// fRequestShutdown getting set, and then does the normal Qt
// shutdown thing.
volatile bool fRequestShutdown = false;
void StartShutdown()
fRequestShutdown = true;
bool ShutdownRequested()
return fRequestShutdown;
class CCoinsViewErrorCatcher : public CCoinsViewBacked
CCoinsViewErrorCatcher(CCoinsView* view) : CCoinsViewBacked(view) {}
bool GetCoins(const uint256 &txid, CCoins &coins) const {
try {
return CCoinsViewBacked::GetCoins(txid, coins);
} catch(const std::runtime_error& e) {
uiInterface.ThreadSafeMessageBox(_("Error reading from database, shutting down."), "", CClientUIInterface::MSG_ERROR);
LogPrintf("Error reading from database: %s\n", e.what());
// Starting the shutdown sequence and returning false to the caller would be
// interpreted as 'entry not found' (as opposed to unable to read data), and
// could lead to invalid interpretation. Just exit immediately, as we can't
// continue anyway, and all writes should be atomic.
// Writes do not need similar protection, as failure to write is handled by the caller.
static CCoinsViewDB *pcoinsdbview = NULL;
static CCoinsViewErrorCatcher *pcoinscatcher = NULL;
void Shutdown()
LogPrintf("%s: In progress...\n", __func__);
static CCriticalSection cs_Shutdown;
TRY_LOCK(cs_Shutdown, lockShutdown);
if (!lockShutdown)
/// Note: Shutdown() must be able to handle cases in which AppInit2() failed part of the way,
/// for example if the data directory was found to be locked.
/// Be sure that anything that writes files or flushes caches only does this if the respective
/// module was initialized.
if (pwalletMain)
GenerateBitcoins(false, 0, Params());
if (fFeeEstimatesInitialized)
boost::filesystem::path est_path = GetDataDir() / FEE_ESTIMATES_FILENAME;
CAutoFile est_fileout(fopen(est_path.string().c_str(), "wb"), SER_DISK, CLIENT_VERSION);
if (!est_fileout.IsNull())
LogPrintf("%s: Failed to write fee estimates to %s\n", __func__, est_path.string());
fFeeEstimatesInitialized = false;
if (pcoinsTip != NULL) {
delete pcoinsTip;
pcoinsTip = NULL;
delete pcoinscatcher;
pcoinscatcher = NULL;
delete pcoinsdbview;
pcoinsdbview = NULL;
delete pblocktree;
pblocktree = NULL;
if (pwalletMain)
#ifndef WIN32
try {
} catch (const boost::filesystem::filesystem_error& e) {
LogPrintf("%s: Unable to remove pidfile: %s\n", __func__, e.what());
delete pwalletMain;
pwalletMain = NULL;
LogPrintf("%s: done\n", __func__);
* Signal handlers are very limited in what they are allowed to do, so:
void HandleSIGTERM(int)
fRequestShutdown = true;
void HandleSIGHUP(int)
fReopenDebugLog = true;
bool static InitError(const std::string &str)
uiInterface.ThreadSafeMessageBox(str, "", CClientUIInterface::MSG_ERROR);
return false;
bool static InitWarning(const std::string &str)
uiInterface.ThreadSafeMessageBox(str, "", CClientUIInterface::MSG_WARNING);
return true;
bool static Bind(const CService &addr, unsigned int flags) {
if (!(flags & BF_EXPLICIT) && IsLimited(addr))
return false;
std::string strError;
if (!BindListenPort(addr, strError, (flags & BF_WHITELIST) != 0)) {
if (flags & BF_REPORT_ERROR)
return InitError(strError);
return false;
return true;
void OnRPCStopped()
LogPrint("rpc", "RPC stopped.\n");
void OnRPCPreCommand(const CRPCCommand& cmd)
// Observe safe mode
string strWarning = GetWarnings("rpc");
if (strWarning != "" && !GetBoolArg("-disablesafemode", false) &&
throw JSONRPCError(RPC_FORBIDDEN_BY_SAFE_MODE, string("Safe mode: ") + strWarning);
std::string HelpMessage(HelpMessageMode mode)
const bool showDebug = GetBoolArg("-help-debug", false);
// When adding new options to the categories, please keep and ensure alphabetical ordering.
// Do not translate _(...) -help-debug options, Many technical terms, and only a very small audience, so is unnecessary stress to translators.
string strUsage = HelpMessageGroup(_("Options:"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-?", _("This help message"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-alerts", strprintf(_("Receive and display P2P network alerts (default: %u)"), DEFAULT_ALERTS));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-alertnotify=<cmd>", _("Execute command when a relevant alert is received or we see a really long fork (%s in cmd is replaced by message)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-blocknotify=<cmd>", _("Execute command when the best block changes (%s in cmd is replaced by block hash)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-checkblocks=<n>", strprintf(_("How many blocks to check at startup (default: %u, 0 = all)"), 288));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-checklevel=<n>", strprintf(_("How thorough the block verification of -checkblocks is (0-4, default: %u)"), 3));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-conf=<file>", strprintf(_("Specify configuration file (default: %s)"), "bitcoin.conf"));
if (mode == HMM_BITCOIND)
#if !defined(WIN32)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-daemon", _("Run in the background as a daemon and accept commands"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-datadir=<dir>", _("Specify data directory"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-dbcache=<n>", strprintf(_("Set database cache size in megabytes (%d to %d, default: %d)"), nMinDbCache, nMaxDbCache, nDefaultDbCache));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-loadblock=<file>", _("Imports blocks from external blk000??.dat file") + " " + _("on startup"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-maxorphantx=<n>", strprintf(_("Keep at most <n> unconnectable transactions in memory (default: %u)"), DEFAULT_MAX_ORPHAN_TRANSACTIONS));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-par=<n>", strprintf(_("Set the number of script verification threads (%u to %d, 0 = auto, <0 = leave that many cores free, default: %d)"),
#ifndef WIN32
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-pid=<file>", strprintf(_("Specify pid file (default: %s)"), ""));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-prune=<n>", strprintf(_("Reduce storage requirements by pruning (deleting) old blocks. This mode disables wallet support and is incompatible with -txindex. "
"Warning: Reverting this setting requires re-downloading the entire blockchain. "
"(default: 0 = disable pruning blocks, >%u = target size in MiB to use for block files)"), MIN_DISK_SPACE_FOR_BLOCK_FILES / 1024 / 1024));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-reindex", _("Rebuild block chain index from current blk000??.dat files on startup"));
#if !defined(WIN32)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-sysperms", _("Create new files with system default permissions, instead of umask 077 (only effective with disabled wallet functionality)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-txindex", strprintf(_("Maintain a full transaction index, used by the getrawtransaction rpc call (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("Connection options:"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-addnode=<ip>", _("Add a node to connect to and attempt to keep the connection open"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-banscore=<n>", strprintf(_("Threshold for disconnecting misbehaving peers (default: %u)"), 100));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-bantime=<n>", strprintf(_("Number of seconds to keep misbehaving peers from reconnecting (default: %u)"), 86400));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-bind=<addr>", _("Bind to given address and always listen on it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-connect=<ip>", _("Connect only to the specified node(s)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-discover", _("Discover own IP addresses (default: 1 when listening and no -externalip or -proxy)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-dns", _("Allow DNS lookups for -addnode, -seednode and -connect") + " " + _("(default: 1)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-dnsseed", _("Query for peer addresses via DNS lookup, if low on addresses (default: 1 unless -connect)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-externalip=<ip>", _("Specify your own public address"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-forcednsseed", strprintf(_("Always query for peer addresses via DNS lookup (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-listen", _("Accept connections from outside (default: 1 if no -proxy or -connect)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-maxconnections=<n>", strprintf(_("Maintain at most <n> connections to peers (default: %u)"), 125));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-maxreceivebuffer=<n>", strprintf(_("Maximum per-connection receive buffer, <n>*1000 bytes (default: %u)"), 5000));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-maxsendbuffer=<n>", strprintf(_("Maximum per-connection send buffer, <n>*1000 bytes (default: %u)"), 1000));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-onion=<ip:port>", strprintf(_("Use separate SOCKS5 proxy to reach peers via Tor hidden services (default: %s)"), "-proxy"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-onlynet=<net>", _("Only connect to nodes in network <net> (ipv4, ipv6 or onion)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-permitbaremultisig", strprintf(_("Relay non-P2SH multisig (default: %u)"), 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-port=<port>", strprintf(_("Listen for connections on <port> (default: %u or testnet: %u)"), 8333, 18333));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-proxy=<ip:port>", _("Connect through SOCKS5 proxy"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-proxyrandomize", strprintf(_("Randomize credentials for every proxy connection. This enables Tor stream isolation (default: %u)"), 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-seednode=<ip>", _("Connect to a node to retrieve peer addresses, and disconnect"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-timeout=<n>", strprintf(_("Specify connection timeout in milliseconds (minimum: 1, default: %d)"), DEFAULT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT));
#ifdef USE_UPNP
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-upnp", _("Use UPnP to map the listening port (default: 1 when listening and no -proxy)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-upnp", strprintf(_("Use UPnP to map the listening port (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-whitebind=<addr>", _("Bind to given address and whitelist peers connecting to it. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-whitelist=<netmask>", _("Whitelist peers connecting from the given netmask or IP address. Can be specified multiple times.") +
" " + _("Whitelisted peers cannot be DoS banned and their transactions are always relayed, even if they are already in the mempool, useful e.g. for a gateway"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-whiteconnections=<n>", strprintf(_("Reserve this many inbound connections for whitelisted peers (default: %d)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("Wallet options:"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-disablewallet", _("Do not load the wallet and disable wallet RPC calls"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-keypool=<n>", strprintf(_("Set key pool size to <n> (default: %u)"), 100));
if (showDebug)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-mintxfee=<amt>", strprintf("Fees (in BTC/Kb) smaller than this are considered zero fee for transaction creation (default: %s)",
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-paytxfee=<amt>", strprintf(_("Fee (in BTC/kB) to add to transactions you send (default: %s)"), FormatMoney(payTxFee.GetFeePerK())));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rescan", _("Rescan the block chain for missing wallet transactions") + " " + _("on startup"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-salvagewallet", _("Attempt to recover private keys from a corrupt wallet.dat") + " " + _("on startup"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-sendfreetransactions", strprintf(_("Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-spendzeroconfchange", strprintf(_("Spend unconfirmed change when sending transactions (default: %u)"), 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-txconfirmtarget=<n>", strprintf(_("If paytxfee is not set, include enough fee so transactions begin confirmation on average within n blocks (default: %u)"), DEFAULT_TX_CONFIRM_TARGET));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-maxtxfee=<amt>", strprintf(_("Maximum total fees to use in a single wallet transaction; setting this too low may abort large transactions (default: %s)"),
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-upgradewallet", _("Upgrade wallet to latest format") + " " + _("on startup"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-wallet=<file>", _("Specify wallet file (within data directory)") + " " + strprintf(_("(default: %s)"), "wallet.dat"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-walletbroadcast", _("Make the wallet broadcast transactions") + " " + strprintf(_("(default: %u)"), true));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-walletnotify=<cmd>", _("Execute command when a wallet transaction changes (%s in cmd is replaced by TxID)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-zapwallettxes=<mode>", _("Delete all wallet transactions and only recover those parts of the blockchain through -rescan on startup") +
" " + _("(1 = keep tx meta data e.g. account owner and payment request information, 2 = drop tx meta data)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("Debugging/Testing options:"));
if (showDebug)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-checkpoints", strprintf("Disable expensive verification for known chain history (default: %u)", 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-dblogsize=<n>", strprintf("Flush database activity from memory pool to disk log every <n> megabytes (default: %u)", 100));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-disablesafemode", strprintf("Disable safemode, override a real safe mode event (default: %u)", 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-testsafemode", strprintf("Force safe mode (default: %u)", 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-dropmessagestest=<n>", "Randomly drop 1 of every <n> network messages");
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-fuzzmessagestest=<n>", "Randomly fuzz 1 of every <n> network messages");
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-flushwallet", strprintf("Run a thread to flush wallet periodically (default: %u)", 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-stopafterblockimport", strprintf("Stop running after importing blocks from disk (default: %u)", 0));
string debugCategories = "addrman, alert, bench, coindb, db, lock, rand, rpc, selectcoins, mempool, net, proxy, prune"; // Don't translate these and qt below
if (mode == HMM_BITCOIN_QT)
debugCategories += ", qt";
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-debug=<category>", strprintf(_("Output debugging information (default: %u, supplying <category> is optional)"), 0) + ". " +
_("If <category> is not supplied or if <category> = 1, output all debugging information.") + _("<category> can be:") + " " + debugCategories + ".");
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-gen", strprintf(_("Generate coins (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-genproclimit=<n>", strprintf(_("Set the number of threads for coin generation if enabled (-1 = all cores, default: %d)"), 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-help-debug", _("Show all debugging options (usage: --help -help-debug)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-logips", strprintf(_("Include IP addresses in debug output (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-logtimestamps", strprintf(_("Prepend debug output with timestamp (default: %u)"), 1));
if (showDebug)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-limitfreerelay=<n>", strprintf("Continuously rate-limit free transactions to <n>*1000 bytes per minute (default: %u)", 15));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-relaypriority", strprintf("Require high priority for relaying free or low-fee transactions (default: %u)", 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-maxsigcachesize=<n>", strprintf("Limit size of signature cache to <n> entries (default: %u)", 50000));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-minrelaytxfee=<amt>", strprintf(_("Fees (in BTC/Kb) smaller than this are considered zero fee for relaying (default: %s)"), FormatMoney(::minRelayTxFee.GetFeePerK())));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-printtoconsole", _("Send trace/debug info to console instead of debug.log file"));
if (showDebug)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-printpriority", strprintf("Log transaction priority and fee per kB when mining blocks (default: %u)", 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-privdb", strprintf("Sets the DB_PRIVATE flag in the wallet db environment (default: %u)", 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-regtest", "Enter regression test mode, which uses a special chain in which blocks can be solved instantly. "
"This is intended for regression testing tools and app development.");
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-shrinkdebugfile", _("Shrink debug.log file on client startup (default: 1 when no -debug)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-testnet", _("Use the test network"));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("Node relay options:"));
if (showDebug)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-acceptnonstdtxn", strprintf("Relay and mine \"non-standard\" transactions (%sdefault: %u)", "testnet/regtest only; ", !Params(CBaseChainParams::TESTNET).RequireStandard()));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-datacarrier", strprintf(_("Relay and mine data carrier transactions (default: %u)"), 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-datacarriersize", strprintf(_("Maximum size of data in data carrier transactions we relay and mine (default: %u)"), MAX_OP_RETURN_RELAY));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("Block creation options:"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-blockminsize=<n>", strprintf(_("Set minimum block size in bytes (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-blockmaxsize=<n>", strprintf(_("Set maximum block size in bytes (default: %d)"), DEFAULT_BLOCK_MAX_SIZE));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-blockprioritysize=<n>", strprintf(_("Set maximum size of high-priority/low-fee transactions in bytes (default: %d)"), DEFAULT_BLOCK_PRIORITY_SIZE));
if (showDebug)
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-blockversion=<n>", strprintf("Override block version to test forking scenarios (default: %d)", (int)CBlock::CURRENT_VERSION));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("RPC server options:"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-server", _("Accept command line and JSON-RPC commands"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rest", strprintf(_("Accept public REST requests (default: %u)"), 0));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcbind=<addr>", _("Bind to given address to listen for JSON-RPC connections. Use [host]:port notation for IPv6. This option can be specified multiple times (default: bind to all interfaces)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcuser=<user>", _("Username for JSON-RPC connections"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcpassword=<pw>", _("Password for JSON-RPC connections"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcport=<port>", strprintf(_("Listen for JSON-RPC connections on <port> (default: %u or testnet: %u)"), 8332, 18332));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcallowip=<ip>", _("Allow JSON-RPC connections from specified source. Valid for <ip> are a single IP (e.g., a network/netmask (e.g. or a network/CIDR (e.g. This option can be specified multiple times"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcthreads=<n>", strprintf(_("Set the number of threads to service RPC calls (default: %d)"), 4));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpckeepalive", strprintf(_("RPC support for HTTP persistent connections (default: %d)"), 1));
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("RPC SSL options: (see the Bitcoin Wiki for SSL setup instructions)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcssl", _("Use OpenSSL (https) for JSON-RPC connections"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcsslcertificatechainfile=<file.cert>", strprintf(_("Server certificate file (default: %s)"), "server.cert"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcsslprivatekeyfile=<file.pem>", strprintf(_("Server private key (default: %s)"), "server.pem"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rpcsslciphers=<ciphers>", strprintf(_("Acceptable ciphers (default: %s)"), "TLSv1.2+HIGH:TLSv1+HIGH:!SSLv2:!aNULL:!eNULL:!3DES:@STRENGTH"));
if (mode == HMM_BITCOIN_QT)
strUsage += HelpMessageGroup(_("UI Options:"));
if (showDebug) {
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-allowselfsignedrootcertificates", "Allow self signed root certificates (default: 0)");
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-choosedatadir", _("Choose data directory on startup (default: 0)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-lang=<lang>", _("Set language, for example \"de_DE\" (default: system locale)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-min", _("Start minimized"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-rootcertificates=<file>", _("Set SSL root certificates for payment request (default: -system-)"));
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-splash", _("Show splash screen on startup (default: 1)"));
if (showDebug) {
strUsage += HelpMessageOpt("-uiplatform", "Select platform to customize UI for (one of windows, macosx, other; default: platform compiled on)");
return strUsage;
std::string LicenseInfo()
return FormatParagraph(strprintf(_("Copyright (C) 2009-%i The Bitcoin Core Developers"), COPYRIGHT_YEAR)) + "\n" +
"\n" +
FormatParagraph(_("This is experimental software.")) + "\n" +
"\n" +
FormatParagraph(_("Distributed under the MIT software license, see the accompanying file COPYING or <>.")) + "\n" +
"\n" +
FormatParagraph(_("This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit <> and cryptographic software written by Eric Young and UPnP software written by Thomas Bernard.")) +
static void BlockNotifyCallback(const uint256& hashNewTip)
std::string strCmd = GetArg("-blocknotify", "");
boost::replace_all(strCmd, "%s", hashNewTip.GetHex());
boost::thread t(runCommand, strCmd); // thread runs free
struct CImportingNow
CImportingNow() {
assert(fImporting == false);
fImporting = true;
~CImportingNow() {
assert(fImporting == true);
fImporting = false;
// If we're using -prune with -reindex, then delete block files that will be ignored by the
// reindex. Since reindexing works by starting at block file 0 and looping until a blockfile
// is missing, do the same here to delete any later block files after a gap. Also delete all
// rev files since they'll be rewritten by the reindex anyway. This ensures that vinfoBlockFile
// is in sync with what's actually on disk by the time we start downloading, so that pruning
// works correctly.
void CleanupBlockRevFiles()
using namespace boost::filesystem;
map<string, path> mapBlockFiles;
// Glob all blk?????.dat and rev?????.dat files from the blocks directory.
// Remove the rev files immediately and insert the blk file paths into an
// ordered map keyed by block file index.
LogPrintf("Removing unusable blk?????.dat and rev?????.dat files for -reindex with -prune\n");
path blocksdir = GetDataDir() / "blocks";
for (directory_iterator it(blocksdir); it != directory_iterator(); it++) {
if (is_regular_file(*it) &&
it->path().filename().string().length() == 12 &&
it->path().filename().string().substr(8,4) == ".dat")
if (it->path().filename().string().substr(0,3) == "blk")
mapBlockFiles[it->path().filename().string().substr(3,5)] = it->path();
else if (it->path().filename().string().substr(0,3) == "rev")
// Remove all block files that aren't part of a contiguous set starting at
// zero by walking the ordered map (keys are block file indices) by
// keeping a separate counter. Once we hit a gap (or if 0 doesn't exist)
// start removing block files.
int nContigCounter = 0;
BOOST_FOREACH(const PAIRTYPE(string, path)& item, mapBlockFiles) {
if (atoi(item.first) == nContigCounter) {
void ThreadImport(std::vector<boost::filesystem::path> vImportFiles)
// -reindex
if (fReindex) {
CImportingNow imp;
int nFile = 0;
while (true) {
CDiskBlockPos pos(nFile, 0);
if (!boost::filesystem::exists(GetBlockPosFilename(pos, "blk")))
break; // No block files left to reindex
FILE *file = OpenBlockFile(pos, true);
if (!file)
break; // This error is logged in OpenBlockFile
LogPrintf("Reindexing block file blk%05u.dat...\n", (unsigned int)nFile);
LoadExternalBlockFile(file, &pos);
fReindex = false;
LogPrintf("Reindexing finished\n");
// To avoid ending up in a situation without genesis block, re-try initializing (no-op if reindexing worked):
// hardcoded $DATADIR/bootstrap.dat
boost::filesystem::path pathBootstrap = GetDataDir() / "bootstrap.dat";
if (boost::filesystem::exists(pathBootstrap)) {
FILE *file = fopen(pathBootstrap.string().c_str(), "rb");
if (file) {
CImportingNow imp;
boost::filesystem::path pathBootstrapOld = GetDataDir() / "bootstrap.dat.old";
LogPrintf("Importing bootstrap.dat...\n");
RenameOver(pathBootstrap, pathBootstrapOld);
} else {
LogPrintf("Warning: Could not open bootstrap file %s\n", pathBootstrap.string());
// -loadblock=
BOOST_FOREACH(const boost::filesystem::path& path, vImportFiles) {
FILE *file = fopen(path.string().c_str(), "rb");
if (file) {
CImportingNow imp;
LogPrintf("Importing blocks file %s...\n", path.string());
} else {
LogPrintf("Warning: Could not open blocks file %s\n", path.string());
if (GetBoolArg("-stopafterblockimport", false)) {
LogPrintf("Stopping after block import\n");
/** Sanity checks
* Ensure that Bitcoin is running in a usable environment with all
* necessary library support.
bool InitSanityCheck(void)
if(!ECC_InitSanityCheck()) {
InitError("OpenSSL appears to lack support for elliptic curve cryptography. For more "
"information, visit");
return false;
if (!glibc_sanity_test() || !glibcxx_sanity_test())
return false;
return true;
/** Initialize bitcoin.
* @pre Parameters should be parsed and config file should be read.
bool AppInit2(boost::thread_group& threadGroup, CScheduler& scheduler)
// ********************************************************* Step 1: setup
#ifdef _MSC_VER
// Turn off Microsoft heap dump noise
_CrtSetReportFile(_CRT_WARN, CreateFileA("NUL", GENERIC_WRITE, 0, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, 0, 0));
#if _MSC_VER >= 1400
// Disable confusing "helpful" text message on abort, Ctrl-C
_set_abort_behavior(0, _WRITE_ABORT_MSG | _CALL_REPORTFAULT);
#ifdef WIN32
// Enable Data Execution Prevention (DEP)
// Minimum supported OS versions: WinXP SP3, WinVista >= SP1, Win Server 2008
// A failure is non-critical and needs no further attention!
// We define this here, because GCCs winbase.h limits this to _WIN32_WINNT >= 0x0601 (Windows 7),
// which is not correct. Can be removed, when GCCs winbase.h is fixed!
#define PROCESS_DEP_ENABLE 0x00000001
PSETPROCDEPPOL setProcDEPPol = (PSETPROCDEPPOL)GetProcAddress(GetModuleHandleA("Kernel32.dll"), "SetProcessDEPPolicy");
if (setProcDEPPol != NULL) setProcDEPPol(PROCESS_DEP_ENABLE);
// Initialize Windows Sockets
WSADATA wsadata;
int ret = WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(2,2), &wsadata);
if (ret != NO_ERROR || LOBYTE(wsadata.wVersion ) != 2 || HIBYTE(wsadata.wVersion) != 2)
return InitError(strprintf("Error: Winsock library failed to start (WSAStartup returned error %d)", ret));
#ifndef WIN32
if (GetBoolArg("-sysperms", false)) {
if (!GetBoolArg("-disablewallet", false))
return InitError("Error: -sysperms is not allowed in combination with enabled wallet functionality");
} else {
// Clean shutdown on SIGTERM
struct sigaction sa;
sa.sa_handler = HandleSIGTERM;
sa.sa_flags = 0;
sigaction(SIGTERM, &sa, NULL);
sigaction(SIGINT, &sa, NULL);
// Reopen debug.log on SIGHUP
struct sigaction sa_hup;
sa_hup.sa_handler = HandleSIGHUP;
sa_hup.sa_flags = 0;
sigaction(SIGHUP, &sa_hup, NULL);
#if defined (__SVR4) && defined (__sun)
// ignore SIGPIPE on Solaris
// ********************************************************* Step 2: parameter interactions
const CChainParams& chainparams = Params();
// Set this early so that parameter interactions go to console
fPrintToConsole = GetBoolArg("-printtoconsole", false);
fLogTimestamps = GetBoolArg("-logtimestamps", true);
fLogIPs = GetBoolArg("-logips", false);
LogPrintf("Bitcoin version %s (%s)\n", FormatFullVersion(), CLIENT_DATE);
// when specifying an explicit binding address, you want to listen on it
// even when -connect or -proxy is specified
if (mapArgs.count("-bind")) {
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-listen", true))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -bind set -> setting -listen=1\n", __func__);
if (mapArgs.count("-whitebind")) {
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-listen", true))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -whitebind set -> setting -listen=1\n", __func__);
if (mapArgs.count("-connect") && mapMultiArgs["-connect"].size() > 0) {
// when only connecting to trusted nodes, do not seed via DNS, or listen by default
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-dnsseed", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -connect set -> setting -dnsseed=0\n", __func__);
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-listen", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -connect set -> setting -listen=0\n", __func__);
if (mapArgs.count("-proxy")) {
// to protect privacy, do not listen by default if a default proxy server is specified
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-listen", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -proxy set -> setting -listen=0\n", __func__);
// to protect privacy, do not use UPNP when a proxy is set. The user may still specify -listen=1
// to listen locally, so don't rely on this happening through -listen below.
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-upnp", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -proxy set -> setting -upnp=0\n", __func__);
// to protect privacy, do not discover addresses by default
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-discover", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -proxy set -> setting -discover=0\n", __func__);
if (!GetBoolArg("-listen", DEFAULT_LISTEN)) {
// do not map ports or try to retrieve public IP when not listening (pointless)
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-upnp", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -listen=0 -> setting -upnp=0\n", __func__);
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-discover", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -listen=0 -> setting -discover=0\n", __func__);
if (mapArgs.count("-externalip")) {
// if an explicit public IP is specified, do not try to find others
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-discover", false))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -externalip set -> setting -discover=0\n", __func__);
if (GetBoolArg("-salvagewallet", false)) {
// Rewrite just private keys: rescan to find transactions
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-rescan", true))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -salvagewallet=1 -> setting -rescan=1\n", __func__);
// -zapwallettx implies a rescan
if (GetBoolArg("-zapwallettxes", false)) {
if (SoftSetBoolArg("-rescan", true))
LogPrintf("%s: parameter interaction: -zapwallettxes=<mode> -> setting -rescan=1\n", __func__);
// if using block pruning, then disable txindex
if (GetArg("-prune", 0)) {
if (GetBoolArg("-txindex", false))
return InitError(_("Prune mode is incompatible with -txindex."));
if (GetBoolArg("-rescan", false)) {
return InitError(_("Rescans are not possible in pruned mode. You will need to use -reindex which will download the whole blockchain again."));
// Make sure enough file descriptors are available
int nBind = std::max((int)mapArgs.count("-bind") + (int)mapArgs.count("-whitebind"), 1);
int nUserMaxConnections = GetArg("-maxconnections", 125);
nMaxConnections = std::max(nUserMaxConnections, 0);
int nUserWhiteConnections = GetArg("-whiteconnections", 0);
nWhiteConnections = std::max(nUserWhiteConnections, 0);
if ((mapArgs.count("-whitelist")) || (mapArgs.count("-whitebind"))) {
if (!(mapArgs.count("-maxconnections"))) {
// User is using whitelist feature,
// but did not specify -maxconnections parameter.
// Silently increase the default to compensate,
// so that the whitelist connection reservation feature
// does not inadvertently reduce the default
// inbound connection capacity of the network.
nMaxConnections += nWhiteConnections;
} else {
// User not using whitelist feature.
// Silently disable connection reservation,
// for the same reason as above.
nWhiteConnections = 0;
// Trim requested connection counts, to fit into system limitations
nMaxConnections = std::max(std::min(nMaxConnections, (int)(FD_SETSIZE - nBind - MIN_CORE_FILEDESCRIPTORS)), 0);
int nFD = RaiseFileDescriptorLimit(nMaxConnections + MIN_CORE_FILEDESCRIPTORS);
return InitError(_("Not enough file descriptors available."));
nMaxConnections = std::min(nFD - MIN_CORE_FILEDESCRIPTORS, nMaxConnections);
if (nMaxConnections < nUserMaxConnections)
InitWarning(strprintf(_("Reducing -maxconnections from %d to %d, because of system limitations."), nUserMaxConnections, nMaxConnections));
// Connection capacity is prioritized in this order:
// outbound connections (hardcoded to 8),
// then whitelisted connections,
// then non-whitelisted connections get whatever's left (if any).
if ((nWhiteConnections > 0) && (nWhiteConnections >= (nMaxConnections - 8)))
InitWarning(strprintf(_("All non-whitelisted incoming connections will be dropped, because -whiteconnections is %d and -maxconnections is only %d."), nWhiteConnections, nMaxConnections));
// ********************************************************* Step 3: parameter-to-internal-flags
fDebug = !mapMultiArgs["-debug"].empty();
// Special-case: if -debug=0/-nodebug is set, turn off debugging messages
const vector<string>& categories = mapMultiArgs["-debug"];
if (GetBoolArg("-nodebug", false) || find(categories.begin(), categories.end(), string("0")) != categories.end())
fDebug = false;
// Check for -debugnet
if (GetBoolArg("-debugnet", false))
InitWarning(_("Warning: Unsupported argument -debugnet ignored, use -debug=net."));
// Check for -socks - as this is a privacy risk to continue, exit here
if (mapArgs.count("-socks"))
return InitError(_("Error: Unsupported argument -socks found. Setting SOCKS version isn't possible anymore, only SOCKS5 proxies are supported."));
// Check for -tor - as this is a privacy risk to continue, exit here
if (GetBoolArg("-tor", false))
return InitError(_("Error: Unsupported argument -tor found, use -onion."));
if (GetBoolArg("-benchmark", false))
InitWarning(_("Warning: Unsupported argument -benchmark ignored, use -debug=bench."));
// Checkmempool and checkblockindex default to true in regtest mode
mempool.setSanityCheck(GetBoolArg("-checkmempool", chainparams.DefaultConsistencyChecks()));
fCheckBlockIndex = GetBoolArg("-checkblockindex", chainparams.DefaultConsistencyChecks());
fCheckpointsEnabled = GetBoolArg("-checkpoints", true);
// -par=0 means autodetect, but nScriptCheckThreads==0 means no concurrency
nScriptCheckThreads = GetArg("-par", DEFAULT_SCRIPTCHECK_THREADS);
if (nScriptCheckThreads <= 0)
nScriptCheckThreads += GetNumCores();
if (nScriptCheckThreads <= 1)
nScriptCheckThreads = 0;
else if (nScriptCheckThreads > MAX_SCRIPTCHECK_THREADS)
fServer = GetBoolArg("-server", false);
// block pruning; get the amount of disk space (in MB) to allot for block & undo files
int64_t nSignedPruneTarget = GetArg("-prune", 0) * 1024 * 1024;
if (nSignedPruneTarget < 0) {
return InitError(_("Prune cannot be configured with a negative value."));
nPruneTarget = (uint64_t) nSignedPruneTarget;
if (nPruneTarget) {
return InitError(strprintf(_("Prune configured below the minimum of %d MB. Please use a higher number."), MIN_DISK_SPACE_FOR_BLOCK_FILES / 1024 / 1024));
LogPrintf("Prune configured to target %uMiB on disk for block and undo files.\n", nPruneTarget / 1024 / 1024);
fPruneMode = true;
bool fDisableWallet = GetBoolArg("-disablewallet", false);
nConnectTimeout = GetArg("-timeout", DEFAULT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT);
if (nConnectTimeout <= 0)
// Fee-per-kilobyte amount considered the same as "free"
// If you are mining, be careful setting this:
// if you set it to zero then
// a transaction spammer can cheaply fill blocks using
// 1-satoshi-fee transactions. It should be set above the real
// cost to you of processing a transaction.
if (mapArgs.count("-minrelaytxfee"))
CAmount n = 0;
if (ParseMoney(mapArgs["-minrelaytxfee"], n) && n > 0)
::minRelayTxFee = CFeeRate(n);
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid amount for -minrelaytxfee=<amount>: '%s'"), mapArgs["-minrelaytxfee"]));
fRequireStandard = !GetBoolArg("-acceptnonstdtxn", !Params().RequireStandard());
if (Params().RequireStandard() && !fRequireStandard)
return InitError(strprintf("acceptnonstdtxn is not currently supported for %s chain", chainparams.NetworkIDString()));
if (mapArgs.count("-mintxfee"))
CAmount n = 0;
if (ParseMoney(mapArgs["-mintxfee"], n) && n > 0)
CWallet::minTxFee = CFeeRate(n);
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid amount for -mintxfee=<amount>: '%s'"), mapArgs["-mintxfee"]));
if (mapArgs.count("-paytxfee"))
CAmount nFeePerK = 0;
if (!ParseMoney(mapArgs["-paytxfee"], nFeePerK))
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid amount for -paytxfee=<amount>: '%s'"), mapArgs["-paytxfee"]));
if (nFeePerK > nHighTransactionFeeWarning)
InitWarning(_("Warning: -paytxfee is set very high! This is the transaction fee you will pay if you send a transaction."));
payTxFee = CFeeRate(nFeePerK, 1000);
if (payTxFee < ::minRelayTxFee)
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid amount for -paytxfee=<amount>: '%s' (must be at least %s)"),
mapArgs["-paytxfee"], ::minRelayTxFee.ToString()));
if (mapArgs.count("-maxtxfee"))
CAmount nMaxFee = 0;
if (!ParseMoney(mapArgs["-maxtxfee"], nMaxFee))
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid amount for -maxtxfee=<amount>: '%s'"), mapArgs["-maptxfee"]));
if (nMaxFee > nHighTransactionMaxFeeWarning)
InitWarning(_("Warning: -maxtxfee is set very high! Fees this large could be paid on a single transaction."));
maxTxFee = nMaxFee;
if (CFeeRate(maxTxFee, 1000) < ::minRelayTxFee)
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid amount for -maxtxfee=<amount>: '%s' (must be at least the minrelay fee of %s to prevent stuck transactions)"),
mapArgs["-maxtxfee"], ::minRelayTxFee.ToString()));
nTxConfirmTarget = GetArg("-txconfirmtarget", DEFAULT_TX_CONFIRM_TARGET);
bSpendZeroConfChange = GetBoolArg("-spendzeroconfchange", true);
fSendFreeTransactions = GetBoolArg("-sendfreetransactions", false);
std::string strWalletFile = GetArg("-wallet", "wallet.dat");
fIsBareMultisigStd = GetBoolArg("-permitbaremultisig", true);
nMaxDatacarrierBytes = GetArg("-datacarriersize", nMaxDatacarrierBytes);
fAlerts = GetBoolArg("-alerts", DEFAULT_ALERTS);
// Option to startup with mocktime set (used for regression testing):
SetMockTime(GetArg("-mocktime", 0)); // SetMockTime(0) is a no-op
// ********************************************************* Step 4: application initialization: dir lock, daemonize, pidfile, debug log
// Initialize elliptic curve code
// Sanity check
if (!InitSanityCheck())
return InitError(_("Initialization sanity check failed. Bitcoin Core is shutting down."));
std::string strDataDir = GetDataDir().string();
// Wallet file must be a plain filename without a directory
if (strWalletFile != boost::filesystem::basename(strWalletFile) + boost::filesystem::extension(strWalletFile))
return InitError(strprintf(_("Wallet %s resides outside data directory %s"), strWalletFile, strDataDir));
// Make sure only a single Bitcoin process is using the data directory.
boost::filesystem::path pathLockFile = GetDataDir() / ".lock";
FILE* file = fopen(pathLockFile.string().c_str(), "a"); // empty lock file; created if it doesn't exist.
if (file) fclose(file);
try {
static boost::interprocess::file_lock lock(pathLockFile.string().c_str());
if (!lock.try_lock())
return InitError(strprintf(_("Cannot obtain a lock on data directory %s. Bitcoin Core is probably already running."), strDataDir));
} catch(const boost::interprocess::interprocess_exception& e) {
return InitError(strprintf(_("Cannot obtain a lock on data directory %s. Bitcoin Core is probably already running.") + " %s.", strDataDir, e.what()));
#ifndef WIN32
CreatePidFile(GetPidFile(), getpid());
if (GetBoolArg("-shrinkdebugfile", !fDebug))
if (fPrintToDebugLog)
LogPrintf("Using OpenSSL version %s\n", SSLeay_version(SSLEAY_VERSION));
LogPrintf("Using BerkeleyDB version %s\n", DbEnv::version(0, 0, 0));
if (!fLogTimestamps)
LogPrintf("Startup time: %s\n", DateTimeStrFormat("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", GetTime()));
LogPrintf("Default data directory %s\n", GetDefaultDataDir().string());
LogPrintf("Using data directory %s\n", strDataDir);
LogPrintf("Using config file %s\n", GetConfigFile().string());
LogPrintf("Using at most %i connections (%i file descriptors available)\n", nMaxConnections, nFD);
if (nWhiteConnections > 0)
LogPrintf("Reserving %i of these connections for whitelisted inbound peers\n", nWhiteConnections);
std::ostringstream strErrors;
LogPrintf("Using %u threads for script verification\n", nScriptCheckThreads);
if (nScriptCheckThreads) {
for (int i=0; i<nScriptCheckThreads-1; i++)
// Start the lightweight task scheduler thread
CScheduler::Function serviceLoop = boost::bind(&CScheduler::serviceQueue, &scheduler);
threadGroup.create_thread(boost::bind(&TraceThread<CScheduler::Function>, "scheduler", serviceLoop));
/* Start the RPC server already. It will be started in "warmup" mode
* and not really process calls already (but it will signify connections
* that the server is there and will be ready later). Warmup mode will
* be disabled when initialisation is finished.
if (fServer)
int64_t nStart;
// ********************************************************* Step 5: verify wallet database integrity
if (!fDisableWallet) {
LogPrintf("Using wallet %s\n", strWalletFile);
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Verifying wallet..."));
std::string warningString;
std::string errorString;
if (!CWallet::Verify(strWalletFile, warningString, errorString))
return false;
if (!warningString.empty())
if (!errorString.empty())
return InitError(warningString);
} // (!fDisableWallet)
// ********************************************************* Step 6: network initialization
if (mapArgs.count("-onlynet")) {
std::set<enum Network> nets;
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& snet, mapMultiArgs["-onlynet"]) {
enum Network net = ParseNetwork(snet);
if (net == NET_UNROUTABLE)
return InitError(strprintf(_("Unknown network specified in -onlynet: '%s'"), snet));
for (int n = 0; n < NET_MAX; n++) {
enum Network net = (enum Network)n;
if (!nets.count(net))
if (mapArgs.count("-whitelist")) {
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& net, mapMultiArgs["-whitelist"]) {
CSubNet subnet(net);
if (!subnet.IsValid())
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid netmask specified in -whitelist: '%s'"), net));
bool proxyRandomize = GetBoolArg("-proxyrandomize", true);
// -proxy sets a proxy for all outgoing network traffic
// -noproxy (or -proxy=0) as well as the empty string can be used to not set a proxy, this is the default
std::string proxyArg = GetArg("-proxy", "");
if (proxyArg != "" && proxyArg != "0") {
proxyType addrProxy = proxyType(CService(proxyArg, 9050), proxyRandomize);
if (!addrProxy.IsValid())
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid -proxy address: '%s'"), proxyArg));
SetProxy(NET_IPV4, addrProxy);
SetProxy(NET_IPV6, addrProxy);
SetProxy(NET_TOR, addrProxy);
SetReachable(NET_TOR); // by default, -proxy sets onion as reachable, unless -noonion later
// -onion can be used to set only a proxy for .onion, or override normal proxy for .onion addresses
// -noonion (or -onion=0) disables connecting to .onion entirely
// An empty string is used to not override the onion proxy (in which case it defaults to -proxy set above, or none)
std::string onionArg = GetArg("-onion", "");
if (onionArg != "") {
if (onionArg == "0") { // Handle -noonion/-onion=0
SetReachable(NET_TOR, false); // set onions as unreachable
} else {
proxyType addrOnion = proxyType(CService(onionArg, 9050), proxyRandomize);
if (!addrOnion.IsValid())
return InitError(strprintf(_("Invalid -onion address: '%s'"), onionArg));
SetProxy(NET_TOR, addrOnion);
// see Step 2: parameter interactions for more information about these
fListen = GetBoolArg("-listen", DEFAULT_LISTEN);
fDiscover = GetBoolArg("-discover", true);
fNameLookup = GetBoolArg("-dns", true);
bool fBound = false;
if (fListen) {
if (mapArgs.count("-bind") || mapArgs.count("-whitebind")) {
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& strBind, mapMultiArgs["-bind"]) {
CService addrBind;
if (!Lookup(strBind.c_str(), addrBind, GetListenPort(), false))
return InitError(strprintf(_("Cannot resolve -bind address: '%s'"), strBind));
fBound |= Bind(addrBind, (BF_EXPLICIT | BF_REPORT_ERROR));
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& strBind, mapMultiArgs["-whitebind"]) {
CService addrBind;
if (!Lookup(strBind.c_str(), addrBind, 0, false))
return InitError(strprintf(_("Cannot resolve -whitebind address: '%s'"), strBind));
if (addrBind.GetPort() == 0)
return InitError(strprintf(_("Need to specify a port with -whitebind: '%s'"), strBind));
else {
struct in_addr inaddr_any;
inaddr_any.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
fBound |= Bind(CService(in6addr_any, GetListenPort()), BF_NONE);
fBound |= Bind(CService(inaddr_any, GetListenPort()), !fBound ? BF_REPORT_ERROR : BF_NONE);
if (!fBound)
return InitError(_("Failed to listen on any port. Use -listen=0 if you want this."));
if (mapArgs.count("-externalip")) {
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& strAddr, mapMultiArgs["-externalip"]) {
CService addrLocal(strAddr, GetListenPort(), fNameLookup);
if (!addrLocal.IsValid())
return InitError(strprintf(_("Cannot resolve -externalip address: '%s'"), strAddr));
AddLocal(CService(strAddr, GetListenPort(), fNameLookup), LOCAL_MANUAL);
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& strDest, mapMultiArgs["-seednode"])
// ********************************************************* Step 7: load block chain
fReindex = GetBoolArg("-reindex", false);
// Upgrading to 0.8; hard-link the old blknnnn.dat files into /blocks/
boost::filesystem::path blocksDir = GetDataDir() / "blocks";
if (!boost::filesystem::exists(blocksDir))
bool linked = false;
for (unsigned int i = 1; i < 10000; i++) {
boost::filesystem::path source = GetDataDir() / strprintf("blk%04u.dat", i);
if (!boost::filesystem::exists(source)) break;
boost::filesystem::path dest = blocksDir / strprintf("blk%05u.dat", i-1);
try {
boost::filesystem::create_hard_link(source, dest);
LogPrintf("Hardlinked %s -> %s\n", source.string(), dest.string());
linked = true;
} catch (const boost::filesystem::filesystem_error& e) {
// Note: hardlink creation failing is not a disaster, it just means
// blocks will get re-downloaded from peers.
LogPrintf("Error hardlinking blk%04u.dat: %s\n", i, e.what());
if (linked)
fReindex = true;
// cache size calculations
int64_t nTotalCache = (GetArg("-dbcache", nDefaultDbCache) << 20);
nTotalCache = std::max(nTotalCache, nMinDbCache << 20); // total cache cannot be less than nMinDbCache
nTotalCache = std::min(nTotalCache, nMaxDbCache << 20); // total cache cannot be greated than nMaxDbcache
int64_t nBlockTreeDBCache = nTotalCache / 8;
if (nBlockTreeDBCache > (1 << 21) && !GetBoolArg("-txindex", false))
nBlockTreeDBCache = (1 << 21); // block tree db cache shouldn't be larger than 2 MiB
nTotalCache -= nBlockTreeDBCache;
int64_t nCoinDBCache = std::min(nTotalCache / 2, (nTotalCache / 4) + (1 << 23)); // use 25%-50% of the remainder for disk cache
nTotalCache -= nCoinDBCache;
nCoinCacheUsage = nTotalCache; // the rest goes to in-memory cache
LogPrintf("Cache configuration:\n");
LogPrintf("* Using %.1fMiB for block index database\n", nBlockTreeDBCache * (1.0 / 1024 / 1024));
LogPrintf("* Using %.1fMiB for chain state database\n", nCoinDBCache * (1.0 / 1024 / 1024));
LogPrintf("* Using %.1fMiB for in-memory UTXO set\n", nCoinCacheUsage * (1.0 / 1024 / 1024));
bool fLoaded = false;
while (!fLoaded) {
bool fReset = fReindex;
std::string strLoadError;
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Loading block index..."));
nStart = GetTimeMillis();
do {
try {
delete pcoinsTip;
delete pcoinsdbview;
delete pcoinscatcher;
delete pblocktree;
pblocktree = new CBlockTreeDB(nBlockTreeDBCache, false, fReindex);
pcoinsdbview = new CCoinsViewDB(nCoinDBCache, false, fReindex);
pcoinscatcher = new CCoinsViewErrorCatcher(pcoinsdbview);
pcoinsTip = new CCoinsViewCache(pcoinscatcher);
if (fReindex) {
//If we're reindexing in prune mode, wipe away unusable block files and all undo data files
if (fPruneMode)
if (!LoadBlockIndex()) {
strLoadError = _("Error loading block database");
// If the loaded chain has a wrong genesis, bail out immediately
// (we're likely using a testnet datadir, or the other way around).
if (!mapBlockIndex.empty() && mapBlockIndex.count(chainparams.GetConsensus().hashGenesisBlock) == 0)
return InitError(_("Incorrect or no genesis block found. Wrong datadir for network?"));
// Initialize the block index (no-op if non-empty database was already loaded)
if (!InitBlockIndex()) {
strLoadError = _("Error initializing block database");
// Check for changed -txindex state
if (fTxIndex != GetBoolArg("-txindex", false)) {
strLoadError = _("You need to rebuild the database using -reindex to change -txindex");
// Check for changed -prune state. What we are concerned about is a user who has pruned blocks
// in the past, but is now trying to run unpruned.
if (fHavePruned && !fPruneMode) {
strLoadError = _("You need to rebuild the database using -reindex to go back to unpruned mode. This will redownload the entire blockchain");
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Verifying blocks..."));
if (fHavePruned && GetArg("-checkblocks", 288) > MIN_BLOCKS_TO_KEEP) {
LogPrintf("Prune: pruned datadir may not have more than %d blocks; -checkblocks=%d may fail\n",
MIN_BLOCKS_TO_KEEP, GetArg("-checkblocks", 288));
if (!CVerifyDB().VerifyDB(pcoinsdbview, GetArg("-checklevel", 3),
GetArg("-checkblocks", 288))) {
strLoadError = _("Corrupted block database detected");
} catch (const std::exception& e) {
if (fDebug) LogPrintf("%s\n", e.what());
strLoadError = _("Error opening block database");
fLoaded = true;
} while(false);
if (!fLoaded) {
// first suggest a reindex
if (!fReset) {
bool fRet = uiInterface.ThreadSafeMessageBox(
strLoadError + ".\n\n" + _("Do you want to rebuild the block database now?"),
"", CClientUIInterface::MSG_ERROR | CClientUIInterface::BTN_ABORT);
if (fRet) {
fReindex = true;
fRequestShutdown = false;
} else {
LogPrintf("Aborted block database rebuild. Exiting.\n");
return false;
} else {
return InitError(strLoadError);
// As LoadBlockIndex can take several minutes, it's possible the user
// requested to kill the GUI during the last operation. If so, exit.
// As the program has not fully started yet, Shutdown() is possibly overkill.
if (fRequestShutdown)
LogPrintf("Shutdown requested. Exiting.\n");
return false;
LogPrintf(" block index %15dms\n", GetTimeMillis() - nStart);
boost::filesystem::path est_path = GetDataDir() / FEE_ESTIMATES_FILENAME;
CAutoFile est_filein(fopen(est_path.string().c_str(), "rb"), SER_DISK, CLIENT_VERSION);
// Allowed to fail as this file IS missing on first startup.
if (!est_filein.IsNull())
fFeeEstimatesInitialized = true;
// if prune mode, unset NODE_NETWORK and prune block files
if (fPruneMode) {
LogPrintf("Unsetting NODE_NETWORK on prune mode\n");
nLocalServices &= ~NODE_NETWORK;
if (!fReindex) {
// ********************************************************* Step 8: load wallet
if (fDisableWallet) {
pwalletMain = NULL;
LogPrintf("Wallet disabled!\n");
} else {
// needed to restore wallet transaction meta data after -zapwallettxes
std::vector<CWalletTx> vWtx;
if (GetBoolArg("-zapwallettxes", false)) {
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Zapping all transactions from wallet..."));
pwalletMain = new CWallet(strWalletFile);
DBErrors nZapWalletRet = pwalletMain->ZapWalletTx(vWtx);
if (nZapWalletRet != DB_LOAD_OK) {
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Error loading wallet.dat: Wallet corrupted"));
return false;
delete pwalletMain;
pwalletMain = NULL;
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Loading wallet..."));
nStart = GetTimeMillis();
bool fFirstRun = true;
pwalletMain = new CWallet(strWalletFile);
DBErrors nLoadWalletRet = pwalletMain->LoadWallet(fFirstRun);
if (nLoadWalletRet != DB_LOAD_OK)
if (nLoadWalletRet == DB_CORRUPT)
strErrors << _("Error loading wallet.dat: Wallet corrupted") << "\n";
else if (nLoadWalletRet == DB_NONCRITICAL_ERROR)
string msg(_("Warning: error reading wallet.dat! All keys read correctly, but transaction data"
" or address book entries might be missing or incorrect."));
else if (nLoadWalletRet == DB_TOO_NEW)
strErrors << _("Error loading wallet.dat: Wallet requires newer version of Bitcoin Core") << "\n";
else if (nLoadWalletRet == DB_NEED_REWRITE)
strErrors << _("Wallet needed to be rewritten: restart Bitcoin Core to complete") << "\n";
LogPrintf("%s", strErrors.str());
return InitError(strErrors.str());
strErrors << _("Error loading wallet.dat") << "\n";
if (GetBoolArg("-upgradewallet", fFirstRun))
int nMaxVersion = GetArg("-upgradewallet", 0);
if (nMaxVersion == 0) // the -upgradewallet without argument case
LogPrintf("Performing wallet upgrade to %i\n", FEATURE_LATEST);
pwalletMain->SetMinVersion(FEATURE_LATEST); // permanently upgrade the wallet immediately
LogPrintf("Allowing wallet upgrade up to %i\n", nMaxVersion);
if (nMaxVersion < pwalletMain->GetVersion())
strErrors << _("Cannot downgrade wallet") << "\n";
if (fFirstRun)
// Create new keyUser and set as default key
CPubKey newDefaultKey;
if (pwalletMain->GetKeyFromPool(newDefaultKey)) {
if (!pwalletMain->SetAddressBook(pwalletMain->vchDefaultKey.GetID(), "", "receive"))
strErrors << _("Cannot write default address") << "\n";
LogPrintf("%s", strErrors.str());
LogPrintf(" wallet %15dms\n", GetTimeMillis() - nStart);
CBlockIndex *pindexRescan = chainActive.Tip();
if (GetBoolArg("-rescan", false))
pindexRescan = chainActive.Genesis();
CWalletDB walletdb(strWalletFile);
CBlockLocator locator;
if (walletdb.ReadBestBlock(locator))
pindexRescan = FindForkInGlobalIndex(chainActive, locator);
pindexRescan = chainActive.Genesis();
if (chainActive.Tip() && chainActive.Tip() != pindexRescan)
//We can't rescan beyond non-pruned blocks, stop and throw an error
//this might happen if a user uses a old wallet within a pruned node
// or if he ran -disablewallet for a longer time, then decided to re-enable
if (fPruneMode)
CBlockIndex *block = chainActive.Tip();
while (block && block->pprev && (block->pprev->nStatus & BLOCK_HAVE_DATA) && block->pprev->nTx > 0 && pindexRescan != block)
block = block->pprev;
if (pindexRescan != block)
return InitError(_("Prune: last wallet synchronisation goes beyond pruned data. You need to -reindex (download the whole blockchain again in case of pruned node)"));
LogPrintf("Rescanning last %i blocks (from block %i)...\n", chainActive.Height() - pindexRescan->nHeight, pindexRescan->nHeight);
nStart = GetTimeMillis();
pwalletMain->ScanForWalletTransactions(pindexRescan, true);
LogPrintf(" rescan %15dms\n", GetTimeMillis() - nStart);
// Restore wallet transaction metadata after -zapwallettxes=1
if (GetBoolArg("-zapwallettxes", false) && GetArg("-zapwallettxes", "1") != "2")
CWalletDB walletdb(strWalletFile);
BOOST_FOREACH(const CWalletTx& wtxOld, vWtx)
uint256 hash = wtxOld.GetHash();
std::map<uint256, CWalletTx>::iterator mi = pwalletMain->mapWallet.find(hash);
if (mi != pwalletMain->mapWallet.end())
const CWalletTx* copyFrom = &wtxOld;
CWalletTx* copyTo = &mi->second;
copyTo->mapValue = copyFrom->mapValue;
copyTo->vOrderForm = copyFrom->vOrderForm;
copyTo->nTimeReceived = copyFrom->nTimeReceived;
copyTo->nTimeSmart = copyFrom->nTimeSmart;
copyTo->fFromMe = copyFrom->fFromMe;
copyTo->strFromAccount = copyFrom->strFromAccount;
copyTo->nOrderPos = copyFrom->nOrderPos;
pwalletMain->SetBroadcastTransactions(GetBoolArg("-walletbroadcast", true));
} // (!fDisableWallet)
LogPrintf("No wallet support compiled in!\n");
#endif // !ENABLE_WALLET
// ********************************************************* Step 9: import blocks
if (mapArgs.count("-blocknotify"))
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Activating best chain..."));
// scan for better chains in the block chain database, that are not yet connected in the active best chain
CValidationState state;
if (!ActivateBestChain(state))
strErrors << "Failed to connect best block";
std::vector<boost::filesystem::path> vImportFiles;
if (mapArgs.count("-loadblock"))
BOOST_FOREACH(const std::string& strFile, mapMultiArgs["-loadblock"])
threadGroup.create_thread(boost::bind(&ThreadImport, vImportFiles));
if (chainActive.Tip() == NULL) {
LogPrintf("Waiting for genesis block to be imported...\n");
while (!fRequestShutdown && chainActive.Tip() == NULL)
// ********************************************************* Step 10: start node
if (!CheckDiskSpace())
return false;
if (!strErrors.str().empty())
return InitError(strErrors.str());
//// debug print
LogPrintf("mapBlockIndex.size() = %u\n", mapBlockIndex.size());
LogPrintf("nBestHeight = %d\n", chainActive.Height());
LogPrintf("setKeyPool.size() = %u\n", pwalletMain ? pwalletMain->setKeyPool.size() : 0);
LogPrintf("mapWallet.size() = %u\n", pwalletMain ? pwalletMain->mapWallet.size() : 0);
LogPrintf("mapAddressBook.size() = %u\n", pwalletMain ? pwalletMain->mapAddressBook.size() : 0);
StartNode(threadGroup, scheduler);
// Monitor the chain, and alert if we get blocks much quicker or slower than expected
int64_t nPowTargetSpacing = Params().GetConsensus().nPowTargetSpacing;
CScheduler::Function f = boost::bind(&PartitionCheck, &IsInitialBlockDownload,
boost::ref(cs_main), boost::cref(pindexBestHeader), nPowTargetSpacing);
scheduler.scheduleEvery(f, nPowTargetSpacing);
// Generate coins in the background
GenerateBitcoins(GetBoolArg("-gen", false), GetArg("-genproclimit", 1), Params());
// ********************************************************* Step 11: finished
uiInterface.InitMessage(_("Done loading"));
if (pwalletMain) {
// Add wallet transactions that aren't already in a block to mapTransactions
// Run a thread to flush wallet periodically
threadGroup.create_thread(boost::bind(&ThreadFlushWalletDB, boost::ref(pwalletMain->strWalletFile)));
return !fRequestShutdown;