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// Copyright (c) 2009-2010 Satoshi Nakamoto
// Copyright (c) 2009-2014 The Bitcoin developers
// Distributed under the MIT/X11 software license, see the accompanying
// file COPYING or http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php.
#include "miner.h"
#include "core.h"
#include "hash.h"
#include "main.h"
#include "net.h"
#include "pow.h"
#include "util.h"
#include "utilmoneystr.h"
#ifdef ENABLE_WALLET
#include "wallet.h"
#endif
#include <boost/thread.hpp>
#include <boost/tuple/tuple.hpp>
using namespace std;
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// BitcoinMiner
//
//
// Unconfirmed transactions in the memory pool often depend on other
// transactions in the memory pool. When we select transactions from the
// pool, we select by highest priority or fee rate, so we might consider
// transactions that depend on transactions that aren't yet in the block.
// The COrphan class keeps track of these 'temporary orphans' while
// CreateBlock is figuring out which transactions to include.
//
class COrphan
{
public:
const CTransaction* ptx;
set<uint256> setDependsOn;
CFeeRate feeRate;
double dPriority;
COrphan(const CTransaction* ptxIn) : ptx(ptxIn), feeRate(0), dPriority(0)
{
}
};
uint64_t nLastBlockTx = 0;
uint64_t nLastBlockSize = 0;
// We want to sort transactions by priority and fee rate, so:
typedef boost::tuple<double, CFeeRate, const CTransaction*> TxPriority;
class TxPriorityCompare
{
bool byFee;
public:
TxPriorityCompare(bool _byFee) : byFee(_byFee) { }
bool operator()(const TxPriority& a, const TxPriority& b)
{
if (byFee)
{
if (a.get<1>() == b.get<1>())
return a.get<0>() < b.get<0>();
return a.get<1>() < b.get<1>();
}
else
{
if (a.get<0>() == b.get<0>())
return a.get<1>() < b.get<1>();
return a.get<0>() < b.get<0>();
}
}
};
CBlockTemplate* CreateNewBlock(const CScript& scriptPubKeyIn)
{
// Create new block
auto_ptr<CBlockTemplate> pblocktemplate(new CBlockTemplate());
if(!pblocktemplate.get())
return NULL;
CBlock *pblock = &pblocktemplate->block; // pointer for convenience
// -regtest only: allow overriding block.nVersion with
// -blockversion=N to test forking scenarios
if (Params().MineBlocksOnDemand())
pblock->nVersion = GetArg("-blockversion", pblock->nVersion);
// Create coinbase tx
CMutableTransaction txNew;
txNew.vin.resize(1);
txNew.vin[0].prevout.SetNull();
txNew.vout.resize(1);
txNew.vout[0].scriptPubKey = scriptPubKeyIn;
// Add dummy coinbase tx as first transaction
pblock->vtx.push_back(CTransaction());
pblocktemplate->vTxFees.push_back(-1); // updated at end
pblocktemplate->vTxSigOps.push_back(-1); // updated at end
// Largest block you're willing to create:
unsigned int nBlockMaxSize = GetArg("-blockmaxsize", DEFAULT_BLOCK_MAX_SIZE);
// Limit to betweeen 1K and MAX_BLOCK_SIZE-1K for sanity:
nBlockMaxSize = std::max((unsigned int)1000, std::min((unsigned int)(MAX_BLOCK_SIZE-1000), nBlockMaxSize));
// How much of the block should be dedicated to high-priority transactions,
// included regardless of the fees they pay
unsigned int nBlockPrioritySize = GetArg("-blockprioritysize", DEFAULT_BLOCK_PRIORITY_SIZE);
nBlockPrioritySize = std::min(nBlockMaxSize, nBlockPrioritySize);
// Minimum block size you want to create; block will be filled with free transactions
// until there are no more or the block reaches this size:
unsigned int nBlockMinSize = GetArg("-blockminsize", DEFAULT_BLOCK_MIN_SIZE);
nBlockMinSize = std::min(nBlockMaxSize, nBlockMinSize);
// Collect memory pool transactions into the block
CAmount nFees = 0;
{
LOCK2(cs_main, mempool.cs);
CBlockIndex* pindexPrev = chainActive.Tip();
CCoinsViewCache view(pcoinsTip);
// Priority order to process transactions
list<COrphan> vOrphan; // list memory doesn't move
map<uint256, vector<COrphan*> > mapDependers;
bool fPrintPriority = GetBoolArg("-printpriority", false);
// This vector will be sorted into a priority queue:
vector<TxPriority> vecPriority;
vecPriority.reserve(mempool.mapTx.size());
for (map<uint256, CTxMemPoolEntry>::iterator mi = mempool.mapTx.begin();
mi != mempool.mapTx.end(); ++mi)
{
const CTransaction& tx = mi->second.GetTx();
if (tx.IsCoinBase() || !IsFinalTx(tx, pindexPrev->nHeight + 1))
continue;
COrphan* porphan = NULL;
double dPriority = 0;
CAmount nTotalIn = 0;
bool fMissingInputs = false;
BOOST_FOREACH(const CTxIn& txin, tx.vin)
{
// Read prev transaction
if (!view.HaveCoins(txin.prevout.hash))
{
// This should never happen; all transactions in the memory
// pool should connect to either transactions in the chain
// or other transactions in the memory pool.
if (!mempool.mapTx.count(txin.prevout.hash))
{
LogPrintf("ERROR: mempool transaction missing input\n");
if (fDebug) assert("mempool transaction missing input" == 0);
fMissingInputs = true;
if (porphan)
vOrphan.pop_back();
break;
}
// Has to wait for dependencies
if (!porphan)
{
// Use list for automatic deletion
vOrphan.push_back(COrphan(&tx));
porphan = &vOrphan.back();
}
mapDependers[txin.prevout.hash].push_back(porphan);
porphan->setDependsOn.insert(txin.prevout.hash);
nTotalIn += mempool.mapTx[txin.prevout.hash].GetTx().vout[txin.prevout.n].nValue;
continue;
}
const CCoins* coins = view.AccessCoins(txin.prevout.hash);
assert(coins);
CAmount nValueIn = coins->vout[txin.prevout.n].nValue;
nTotalIn += nValueIn;
int nConf = pindexPrev->nHeight - coins->nHeight + 1;
dPriority += (double)nValueIn * nConf;
}
if (fMissingInputs) continue;
// Priority is sum(valuein * age) / modified_txsize
unsigned int nTxSize = ::GetSerializeSize(tx, SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
dPriority = tx.ComputePriority(dPriority, nTxSize);
uint256 hash = tx.GetHash();
mempool.ApplyDeltas(hash, dPriority, nTotalIn);
CFeeRate feeRate(nTotalIn-tx.GetValueOut(), nTxSize);
if (porphan)
{
porphan->dPriority = dPriority;
porphan->feeRate = feeRate;
}
else
vecPriority.push_back(TxPriority(dPriority, feeRate, &mi->second.GetTx()));
}
// Collect transactions into block
uint64_t nBlockSize = 1000;
uint64_t nBlockTx = 0;
int nBlockSigOps = 100;
bool fSortedByFee = (nBlockPrioritySize <= 0);
TxPriorityCompare comparer(fSortedByFee);
std::make_heap(vecPriority.begin(), vecPriority.end(), comparer);
while (!vecPriority.empty())
{
// Take highest priority transaction off the priority queue:
double dPriority = vecPriority.front().get<0>();
CFeeRate feeRate = vecPriority.front().get<1>();
const CTransaction& tx = *(vecPriority.front().get<2>());
std::pop_heap(vecPriority.begin(), vecPriority.end(), comparer);
vecPriority.pop_back();
// Size limits
unsigned int nTxSize = ::GetSerializeSize(tx, SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
if (nBlockSize + nTxSize >= nBlockMaxSize)
continue;
// Legacy limits on sigOps:
unsigned int nTxSigOps = GetLegacySigOpCount(tx);
if (nBlockSigOps + nTxSigOps >= MAX_BLOCK_SIGOPS)
continue;
// Skip free transactions if we're past the minimum block size:
const uint256& hash = tx.GetHash();
double dPriorityDelta = 0;
CAmount nFeeDelta = 0;
mempool.ApplyDeltas(hash, dPriorityDelta, nFeeDelta);
if (fSortedByFee && (dPriorityDelta <= 0) && (nFeeDelta <= 0) && (feeRate < ::minRelayTxFee) && (nBlockSize + nTxSize >= nBlockMinSize))
continue;
// Prioritise by fee once past the priority size or we run out of high-priority
// transactions:
if (!fSortedByFee &&
((nBlockSize + nTxSize >= nBlockPrioritySize) || !AllowFree(dPriority)))
{
fSortedByFee = true;
comparer = TxPriorityCompare(fSortedByFee);
std::make_heap(vecPriority.begin(), vecPriority.end(), comparer);
}
if (!view.HaveInputs(tx))
continue;
CAmount nTxFees = view.GetValueIn(tx)-tx.GetValueOut();
nTxSigOps += GetP2SHSigOpCount(tx, view);
if (nBlockSigOps + nTxSigOps >= MAX_BLOCK_SIGOPS)
continue;
// Note that flags: we don't want to set mempool/IsStandard()
// policy here, but we still have to ensure that the block we
// create only contains transactions that are valid in new blocks.
CValidationState state;
if (!CheckInputs(tx, state, view, true, MANDATORY_SCRIPT_VERIFY_FLAGS, true))
continue;
CTxUndo txundo;
UpdateCoins(tx, state, view, txundo, pindexPrev->nHeight+1);
// Added
pblock->vtx.push_back(tx);
pblocktemplate->vTxFees.push_back(nTxFees);
pblocktemplate->vTxSigOps.push_back(nTxSigOps);
nBlockSize += nTxSize;
++nBlockTx;
nBlockSigOps += nTxSigOps;
nFees += nTxFees;
if (fPrintPriority)
{
LogPrintf("priority %.1f fee %s txid %s\n",
dPriority, feeRate.ToString(), tx.GetHash().ToString());
}
// Add transactions that depend on this one to the priority queue
if (mapDependers.count(hash))
{
BOOST_FOREACH(COrphan* porphan, mapDependers[hash])
{
if (!porphan->setDependsOn.empty())
{
porphan->setDependsOn.erase(hash);
if (porphan->setDependsOn.empty())
{
vecPriority.push_back(TxPriority(porphan->dPriority, porphan->feeRate, porphan->ptx));
std::push_heap(vecPriority.begin(), vecPriority.end(), comparer);
}
}
}
}
}
nLastBlockTx = nBlockTx;
nLastBlockSize = nBlockSize;
LogPrintf("CreateNewBlock(): total size %u\n", nBlockSize);
// Compute final coinbase transaction.
txNew.vout[0].nValue = GetBlockValue(pindexPrev->nHeight+1, nFees);
txNew.vin[0].scriptSig = CScript() << OP_0 << OP_0;
pblock->vtx[0] = txNew;
pblocktemplate->vTxFees[0] = -nFees;
// Fill in header
pblock->hashPrevBlock = pindexPrev->GetBlockHash();
UpdateTime(pblock, pindexPrev);
pblock->nBits = GetNextWorkRequired(pindexPrev, pblock);
pblock->nNonce = 0;
pblocktemplate->vTxSigOps[0] = GetLegacySigOpCount(pblock->vtx[0]);
CBlockIndex indexDummy(*pblock);
indexDummy.pprev = pindexPrev;
indexDummy.nHeight = pindexPrev->nHeight + 1;
CCoinsViewCache viewNew(pcoinsTip);
CValidationState state;
if (!ConnectBlock(*pblock, state, &indexDummy, viewNew, true))
throw std::runtime_error("CreateNewBlock() : ConnectBlock failed");
}
return pblocktemplate.release();
}
void IncrementExtraNonce(CBlock* pblock, CBlockIndex* pindexPrev, unsigned int& nExtraNonce)
{
// Update nExtraNonce
static uint256 hashPrevBlock;
if (hashPrevBlock != pblock->hashPrevBlock)
{
nExtraNonce = 0;
hashPrevBlock = pblock->hashPrevBlock;
}
++nExtraNonce;
unsigned int nHeight = pindexPrev->nHeight+1; // Height first in coinbase required for block.version=2
CMutableTransaction txCoinbase(pblock->vtx[0]);
txCoinbase.vin[0].scriptSig = (CScript() << nHeight << CScriptNum(nExtraNonce)) + COINBASE_FLAGS;
assert(txCoinbase.vin[0].scriptSig.size() <= 100);
pblock->vtx[0] = txCoinbase;
pblock->hashMerkleRoot = pblock->BuildMerkleTree();
}
#ifdef ENABLE_WALLET
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Internal miner
//
double dHashesPerSec = 0.0;
int64_t nHPSTimerStart = 0;
//
// ScanHash scans nonces looking for a hash with at least some zero bits.
// The nonce is usually preserved between calls, but periodically or if the
// nonce is 0xffff0000 or above, the block is rebuilt and nNonce starts over at
// zero.
//
bool static ScanHash(const CBlockHeader *pblock, uint32_t& nNonce, uint256 *phash)
{
// Write the first 76 bytes of the block header to a double-SHA256 state.
CHash256 hasher;
CDataStream ss(SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
ss << *pblock;
assert(ss.size() == 80);
hasher.Write((unsigned char*)&ss[0], 76);
while (true) {
nNonce++;
// Write the last 4 bytes of the block header (the nonce) to a copy of
// the double-SHA256 state, and compute the result.
CHash256(hasher).Write((unsigned char*)&nNonce, 4).Finalize((unsigned char*)phash);
// Return the nonce if the hash has at least some zero bits,
// caller will check if it has enough to reach the target
if (((uint16_t*)phash)[15] == 0)
return true;
// If nothing found after trying for a while, return -1
if ((nNonce & 0xffff) == 0)
return false;
if ((nNonce & 0xfff) == 0)
boost::this_thread::interruption_point();
}
}
CBlockTemplate* CreateNewBlockWithKey(CReserveKey& reservekey)
{
CPubKey pubkey;
if (!reservekey.GetReservedKey(pubkey))
return NULL;
CScript scriptPubKey = CScript() << pubkey << OP_CHECKSIG;
return CreateNewBlock(scriptPubKey);
}
bool ProcessBlockFound(CBlock* pblock, CWallet& wallet, CReserveKey& reservekey)
{
LogPrintf("%s\n", pblock->ToString());
LogPrintf("generated %s\n", FormatMoney(pblock->vtx[0].vout[0].nValue));
// Found a solution
{
LOCK(cs_main);
if (pblock->hashPrevBlock != chainActive.Tip()->GetBlockHash())
return error("BitcoinMiner : generated block is stale");
}
// Remove key from key pool
reservekey.KeepKey();
// Track how many getdata requests this block gets
{
LOCK(wallet.cs_wallet);
wallet.mapRequestCount[pblock->GetHash()] = 0;
}
// Process this block the same as if we had received it from another node
CValidationState state;
if (!ProcessBlock(state, NULL, pblock))
return error("BitcoinMiner : ProcessBlock, block not accepted");
return true;
}
void static BitcoinMiner(CWallet *pwallet)
{
LogPrintf("BitcoinMiner started\n");
SetThreadPriority(THREAD_PRIORITY_LOWEST);
RenameThread("bitcoin-miner");
// Each thread has its own key and counter
CReserveKey reservekey(pwallet);
unsigned int nExtraNonce = 0;
try {
while (true) {
if (Params().MiningRequiresPeers()) {
// Busy-wait for the network to come online so we don't waste time mining
// on an obsolete chain. In regtest mode we expect to fly solo.
while (vNodes.empty())
MilliSleep(1000);
}
//
// Create new block
//
unsigned int nTransactionsUpdatedLast = mempool.GetTransactionsUpdated();
CBlockIndex* pindexPrev = chainActive.Tip();
auto_ptr<CBlockTemplate> pblocktemplate(CreateNewBlockWithKey(reservekey));
if (!pblocktemplate.get())
{
LogPrintf("Error in BitcoinMiner: Keypool ran out, please call keypoolrefill before restarting the mining thread\n");
return;
}
CBlock *pblock = &pblocktemplate->block;
IncrementExtraNonce(pblock, pindexPrev, nExtraNonce);
LogPrintf("Running BitcoinMiner with %u transactions in block (%u bytes)\n", pblock->vtx.size(),
::GetSerializeSize(*pblock, SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION));
//
// Search
//
int64_t nStart = GetTime();
uint256 hashTarget = uint256().SetCompact(pblock->nBits);
uint256 hash;
uint32_t nNonce = 0;
uint32_t nOldNonce = 0;
while (true) {
bool fFound = ScanHash(pblock, nNonce, &hash);
uint32_t nHashesDone = nNonce - nOldNonce;
nOldNonce = nNonce;
// Check if something found
if (fFound)
{
if (hash <= hashTarget)
{
// Found a solution
pblock->nNonce = nNonce;
assert(hash == pblock->GetHash());
SetThreadPriority(THREAD_PRIORITY_NORMAL);
LogPrintf("BitcoinMiner:\n");
LogPrintf("proof-of-work found \n hash: %s \ntarget: %s\n", hash.GetHex(), hashTarget.GetHex());
ProcessBlockFound(pblock, *pwallet, reservekey);
SetThreadPriority(THREAD_PRIORITY_LOWEST);
// In regression test mode, stop mining after a block is found.
if (Params().MineBlocksOnDemand())
throw boost::thread_interrupted();
break;
}
}
// Meter hashes/sec
static int64_t nHashCounter;
if (nHPSTimerStart == 0)
{
nHPSTimerStart = GetTimeMillis();
nHashCounter = 0;
}
else
nHashCounter += nHashesDone;
if (GetTimeMillis() - nHPSTimerStart > 4000)
{
static CCriticalSection cs;
{
LOCK(cs);
if (GetTimeMillis() - nHPSTimerStart > 4000)
{
dHashesPerSec = 1000.0 * nHashCounter / (GetTimeMillis() - nHPSTimerStart);
nHPSTimerStart = GetTimeMillis();
nHashCounter = 0;
static int64_t nLogTime;
if (GetTime() - nLogTime > 30 * 60)
{
nLogTime = GetTime();
LogPrintf("hashmeter %6.0f khash/s\n", dHashesPerSec/1000.0);
}
}
}
}
// Check for stop or if block needs to be rebuilt
boost::this_thread::interruption_point();
// Regtest mode doesn't require peers
if (vNodes.empty() && Params().MiningRequiresPeers())
break;
if (nNonce >= 0xffff0000)
break;
if (mempool.GetTransactionsUpdated() != nTransactionsUpdatedLast && GetTime() - nStart > 60)
break;
if (pindexPrev != chainActive.Tip())
break;
// Update nTime every few seconds
UpdateTime(pblock, pindexPrev);
if (Params().AllowMinDifficultyBlocks())
{
// Changing pblock->nTime can change work required on testnet:
hashTarget.SetCompact(pblock->nBits);
}
}
}
}
catch (boost::thread_interrupted)
{
LogPrintf("BitcoinMiner terminated\n");
throw;
}
}
void GenerateBitcoins(bool fGenerate, CWallet* pwallet, int nThreads)
{
static boost::thread_group* minerThreads = NULL;
if (nThreads < 0) {
// In regtest threads defaults to 1
if (Params().DefaultMinerThreads())
nThreads = Params().DefaultMinerThreads();
else
nThreads = boost::thread::hardware_concurrency();
}
if (minerThreads != NULL)
{
minerThreads->interrupt_all();
delete minerThreads;
minerThreads = NULL;
}
if (nThreads == 0 || !fGenerate)
return;
minerThreads = new boost::thread_group();
for (int i = 0; i < nThreads; i++)
minerThreads->create_thread(boost::bind(&BitcoinMiner, pwallet));
}
#endif // ENABLE_WALLET