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base58.h 12KB

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  1. // Copyright (c) 2009-2010 Satoshi Nakamoto
  2. // Copyright (c) 2009-2013 The Bitcoin developers
  3. // Distributed under the MIT/X11 software license, see the accompanying
  4. // file COPYING or http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php.
  5. //
  6. // Why base-58 instead of standard base-64 encoding?
  7. // - Don't want 0OIl characters that look the same in some fonts and
  8. // could be used to create visually identical looking account numbers.
  9. // - A string with non-alphanumeric characters is not as easily accepted as an account number.
  10. // - E-mail usually won't line-break if there's no punctuation to break at.
  11. // - Double-clicking selects the whole number as one word if it's all alphanumeric.
  12. //
  13. #ifndef BITCOIN_BASE58_H
  14. #define BITCOIN_BASE58_H
  15. #include "bignum.h"
  16. #include "chainparams.h"
  17. #include "hash.h"
  18. #include "key.h"
  19. #include "script.h"
  20. #include "uint256.h"
  21. #include <string>
  22. #include <vector>
  23. #include <boost/variant/apply_visitor.hpp>
  24. #include <boost/variant/static_visitor.hpp>
  25. static const char* pszBase58 = "123456789ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijkmnopqrstuvwxyz";
  26. // Encode a byte sequence as a base58-encoded string
  27. inline std::string EncodeBase58(const unsigned char* pbegin, const unsigned char* pend)
  28. {
  29. CAutoBN_CTX pctx;
  30. CBigNum bn58 = 58;
  31. CBigNum bn0 = 0;
  32. // Convert big endian data to little endian
  33. // Extra zero at the end make sure bignum will interpret as a positive number
  34. std::vector<unsigned char> vchTmp(pend-pbegin+1, 0);
  35. reverse_copy(pbegin, pend, vchTmp.begin());
  36. // Convert little endian data to bignum
  37. CBigNum bn;
  38. bn.setvch(vchTmp);
  39. // Convert bignum to std::string
  40. std::string str;
  41. // Expected size increase from base58 conversion is approximately 137%
  42. // use 138% to be safe
  43. str.reserve((pend - pbegin) * 138 / 100 + 1);
  44. CBigNum dv;
  45. CBigNum rem;
  46. while (bn > bn0)
  47. {
  48. if (!BN_div(&dv, &rem, &bn, &bn58, pctx))
  49. throw bignum_error("EncodeBase58 : BN_div failed");
  50. bn = dv;
  51. unsigned int c = rem.getulong();
  52. str += pszBase58[c];
  53. }
  54. // Leading zeroes encoded as base58 zeros
  55. for (const unsigned char* p = pbegin; p < pend && *p == 0; p++)
  56. str += pszBase58[0];
  57. // Convert little endian std::string to big endian
  58. reverse(str.begin(), str.end());
  59. return str;
  60. }
  61. // Encode a byte vector as a base58-encoded string
  62. inline std::string EncodeBase58(const std::vector<unsigned char>& vch)
  63. {
  64. return EncodeBase58(&vch[0], &vch[0] + vch.size());
  65. }
  66. // Decode a base58-encoded string psz into byte vector vchRet
  67. // returns true if decoding is successful
  68. inline bool DecodeBase58(const char* psz, std::vector<unsigned char>& vchRet)
  69. {
  70. CAutoBN_CTX pctx;
  71. vchRet.clear();
  72. CBigNum bn58 = 58;
  73. CBigNum bn = 0;
  74. CBigNum bnChar;
  75. while (isspace(*psz))
  76. psz++;
  77. // Convert big endian string to bignum
  78. for (const char* p = psz; *p; p++)
  79. {
  80. const char* p1 = strchr(pszBase58, *p);
  81. if (p1 == NULL)
  82. {
  83. while (isspace(*p))
  84. p++;
  85. if (*p != '\0')
  86. return false;
  87. break;
  88. }
  89. bnChar.setulong(p1 - pszBase58);
  90. if (!BN_mul(&bn, &bn, &bn58, pctx))
  91. throw bignum_error("DecodeBase58 : BN_mul failed");
  92. bn += bnChar;
  93. }
  94. // Get bignum as little endian data
  95. std::vector<unsigned char> vchTmp = bn.getvch();
  96. // Trim off sign byte if present
  97. if (vchTmp.size() >= 2 && vchTmp.end()[-1] == 0 && vchTmp.end()[-2] >= 0x80)
  98. vchTmp.erase(vchTmp.end()-1);
  99. // Restore leading zeros
  100. int nLeadingZeros = 0;
  101. for (const char* p = psz; *p == pszBase58[0]; p++)
  102. nLeadingZeros++;
  103. vchRet.assign(nLeadingZeros + vchTmp.size(), 0);
  104. // Convert little endian data to big endian
  105. reverse_copy(vchTmp.begin(), vchTmp.end(), vchRet.end() - vchTmp.size());
  106. return true;
  107. }
  108. // Decode a base58-encoded string str into byte vector vchRet
  109. // returns true if decoding is successful
  110. inline bool DecodeBase58(const std::string& str, std::vector<unsigned char>& vchRet)
  111. {
  112. return DecodeBase58(str.c_str(), vchRet);
  113. }
  114. // Encode a byte vector to a base58-encoded string, including checksum
  115. inline std::string EncodeBase58Check(const std::vector<unsigned char>& vchIn)
  116. {
  117. // add 4-byte hash check to the end
  118. std::vector<unsigned char> vch(vchIn);
  119. uint256 hash = Hash(vch.begin(), vch.end());
  120. vch.insert(vch.end(), (unsigned char*)&hash, (unsigned char*)&hash + 4);
  121. return EncodeBase58(vch);
  122. }
  123. // Decode a base58-encoded string psz that includes a checksum, into byte vector vchRet
  124. // returns true if decoding is successful
  125. inline bool DecodeBase58Check(const char* psz, std::vector<unsigned char>& vchRet)
  126. {
  127. if (!DecodeBase58(psz, vchRet))
  128. return false;
  129. if (vchRet.size() < 4)
  130. {
  131. vchRet.clear();
  132. return false;
  133. }
  134. uint256 hash = Hash(vchRet.begin(), vchRet.end()-4);
  135. if (memcmp(&hash, &vchRet.end()[-4], 4) != 0)
  136. {
  137. vchRet.clear();
  138. return false;
  139. }
  140. vchRet.resize(vchRet.size()-4);
  141. return true;
  142. }
  143. // Decode a base58-encoded string str that includes a checksum, into byte vector vchRet
  144. // returns true if decoding is successful
  145. inline bool DecodeBase58Check(const std::string& str, std::vector<unsigned char>& vchRet)
  146. {
  147. return DecodeBase58Check(str.c_str(), vchRet);
  148. }
  149. /** Base class for all base58-encoded data */
  150. class CBase58Data
  151. {
  152. protected:
  153. // the version byte(s)
  154. std::vector<unsigned char> vchVersion;
  155. // the actually encoded data
  156. typedef std::vector<unsigned char, zero_after_free_allocator<unsigned char> > vector_uchar;
  157. vector_uchar vchData;
  158. CBase58Data()
  159. {
  160. vchVersion.clear();
  161. vchData.clear();
  162. }
  163. void SetData(const std::vector<unsigned char> &vchVersionIn, const void* pdata, size_t nSize)
  164. {
  165. vchVersion = vchVersionIn;
  166. vchData.resize(nSize);
  167. if (!vchData.empty())
  168. memcpy(&vchData[0], pdata, nSize);
  169. }
  170. void SetData(const std::vector<unsigned char> &vchVersionIn, const unsigned char *pbegin, const unsigned char *pend)
  171. {
  172. SetData(vchVersionIn, (void*)pbegin, pend - pbegin);
  173. }
  174. public:
  175. bool SetString(const char* psz, unsigned int nVersionBytes = 1)
  176. {
  177. std::vector<unsigned char> vchTemp;
  178. DecodeBase58Check(psz, vchTemp);
  179. if (vchTemp.size() < nVersionBytes)
  180. {
  181. vchData.clear();
  182. vchVersion.clear();
  183. return false;
  184. }
  185. vchVersion.assign(vchTemp.begin(), vchTemp.begin() + nVersionBytes);
  186. vchData.resize(vchTemp.size() - nVersionBytes);
  187. if (!vchData.empty())
  188. memcpy(&vchData[0], &vchTemp[nVersionBytes], vchData.size());
  189. OPENSSL_cleanse(&vchTemp[0], vchData.size());
  190. return true;
  191. }
  192. bool SetString(const std::string& str)
  193. {
  194. return SetString(str.c_str());
  195. }
  196. std::string ToString() const
  197. {
  198. std::vector<unsigned char> vch = vchVersion;
  199. vch.insert(vch.end(), vchData.begin(), vchData.end());
  200. return EncodeBase58Check(vch);
  201. }
  202. int CompareTo(const CBase58Data& b58) const
  203. {
  204. if (vchVersion < b58.vchVersion) return -1;
  205. if (vchVersion > b58.vchVersion) return 1;
  206. if (vchData < b58.vchData) return -1;
  207. if (vchData > b58.vchData) return 1;
  208. return 0;
  209. }
  210. bool operator==(const CBase58Data& b58) const { return CompareTo(b58) == 0; }
  211. bool operator<=(const CBase58Data& b58) const { return CompareTo(b58) <= 0; }
  212. bool operator>=(const CBase58Data& b58) const { return CompareTo(b58) >= 0; }
  213. bool operator< (const CBase58Data& b58) const { return CompareTo(b58) < 0; }
  214. bool operator> (const CBase58Data& b58) const { return CompareTo(b58) > 0; }
  215. };
  216. /** base58-encoded Bitcoin addresses.
  217. * Public-key-hash-addresses have version 0 (or 111 testnet).
  218. * The data vector contains RIPEMD160(SHA256(pubkey)), where pubkey is the serialized public key.
  219. * Script-hash-addresses have version 5 (or 196 testnet).
  220. * The data vector contains RIPEMD160(SHA256(cscript)), where cscript is the serialized redemption script.
  221. */
  222. class CBitcoinAddress;
  223. class CBitcoinAddressVisitor : public boost::static_visitor<bool>
  224. {
  225. private:
  226. CBitcoinAddress *addr;
  227. public:
  228. CBitcoinAddressVisitor(CBitcoinAddress *addrIn) : addr(addrIn) { }
  229. bool operator()(const CKeyID &id) const;
  230. bool operator()(const CScriptID &id) const;
  231. bool operator()(const CNoDestination &no) const;
  232. };
  233. class CBitcoinAddress : public CBase58Data
  234. {
  235. public:
  236. bool Set(const CKeyID &id) {
  237. SetData(Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::PUBKEY_ADDRESS), &id, 20);
  238. return true;
  239. }
  240. bool Set(const CScriptID &id) {
  241. SetData(Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::SCRIPT_ADDRESS), &id, 20);
  242. return true;
  243. }
  244. bool Set(const CTxDestination &dest)
  245. {
  246. return boost::apply_visitor(CBitcoinAddressVisitor(this), dest);
  247. }
  248. bool IsValid() const
  249. {
  250. bool fCorrectSize = vchData.size() == 20;
  251. bool fKnownVersion = vchVersion == Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::PUBKEY_ADDRESS) ||
  252. vchVersion == Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::SCRIPT_ADDRESS);
  253. return fCorrectSize && fKnownVersion;
  254. }
  255. CBitcoinAddress()
  256. {
  257. }
  258. CBitcoinAddress(const CTxDestination &dest)
  259. {
  260. Set(dest);
  261. }
  262. CBitcoinAddress(const std::string& strAddress)
  263. {
  264. SetString(strAddress);
  265. }
  266. CBitcoinAddress(const char* pszAddress)
  267. {
  268. SetString(pszAddress);
  269. }
  270. CTxDestination Get() const {
  271. if (!IsValid())
  272. return CNoDestination();
  273. uint160 id;
  274. memcpy(&id, &vchData[0], 20);
  275. if (vchVersion == Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::PUBKEY_ADDRESS))
  276. return CKeyID(id);
  277. else if (vchVersion == Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::SCRIPT_ADDRESS))
  278. return CScriptID(id);
  279. else
  280. return CNoDestination();
  281. }
  282. bool GetKeyID(CKeyID &keyID) const {
  283. if (!IsValid() || vchVersion != Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::PUBKEY_ADDRESS))
  284. return false;
  285. uint160 id;
  286. memcpy(&id, &vchData[0], 20);
  287. keyID = CKeyID(id);
  288. return true;
  289. }
  290. bool IsScript() const {
  291. return IsValid() && vchVersion == Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::SCRIPT_ADDRESS);
  292. }
  293. };
  294. bool inline CBitcoinAddressVisitor::operator()(const CKeyID &id) const { return addr->Set(id); }
  295. bool inline CBitcoinAddressVisitor::operator()(const CScriptID &id) const { return addr->Set(id); }
  296. bool inline CBitcoinAddressVisitor::operator()(const CNoDestination &id) const { return false; }
  297. /** A base58-encoded secret key */
  298. class CBitcoinSecret : public CBase58Data
  299. {
  300. public:
  301. void SetKey(const CKey& vchSecret)
  302. {
  303. assert(vchSecret.IsValid());
  304. SetData(Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::SECRET_KEY), vchSecret.begin(), vchSecret.size());
  305. if (vchSecret.IsCompressed())
  306. vchData.push_back(1);
  307. }
  308. CKey GetKey()
  309. {
  310. CKey ret;
  311. ret.Set(&vchData[0], &vchData[32], vchData.size() > 32 && vchData[32] == 1);
  312. return ret;
  313. }
  314. bool IsValid() const
  315. {
  316. bool fExpectedFormat = vchData.size() == 32 || (vchData.size() == 33 && vchData[32] == 1);
  317. bool fCorrectVersion = vchVersion == Params().Base58Prefix(CChainParams::SECRET_KEY);
  318. return fExpectedFormat && fCorrectVersion;
  319. }
  320. bool SetString(const char* pszSecret)
  321. {
  322. return CBase58Data::SetString(pszSecret) && IsValid();
  323. }
  324. bool SetString(const std::string& strSecret)
  325. {
  326. return SetString(strSecret.c_str());
  327. }
  328. CBitcoinSecret(const CKey& vchSecret)
  329. {
  330. SetKey(vchSecret);
  331. }
  332. CBitcoinSecret()
  333. {
  334. }
  335. };
  336. template<typename K, int Size, CChainParams::Base58Type Type> class CBitcoinExtKeyBase : public CBase58Data
  337. {
  338. public:
  339. void SetKey(const K &key) {
  340. unsigned char vch[Size];
  341. key.Encode(vch);
  342. SetData(Params().Base58Prefix(Type), vch, vch+Size);
  343. }
  344. K GetKey() {
  345. K ret;
  346. ret.Decode(&vchData[0], &vchData[Size]);
  347. return ret;
  348. }
  349. CBitcoinExtKeyBase(const K &key) {
  350. SetKey(key);
  351. }
  352. CBitcoinExtKeyBase() {}
  353. };
  354. typedef CBitcoinExtKeyBase<CExtKey, 74, CChainParams::EXT_SECRET_KEY> CBitcoinExtKey;
  355. typedef CBitcoinExtKeyBase<CExtPubKey, 74, CChainParams::EXT_PUBLIC_KEY> CBitcoinExtPubKey;
  356. #endif // BITCOIN_BASE58_H