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# Copyright (c) 2014-2015 The Bitcoin Core developers
# Distributed under the MIT software license, see the accompanying
# file COPYING or
# Helpful routines for regression testing
# Add python-bitcoinrpc to module search path:
import os
import sys
from decimal import Decimal, ROUND_DOWN
import json
import random
import shutil
import subprocess
import time
import re
from . import coverage
from .authproxy import AuthServiceProxy, JSONRPCException
def enable_coverage(dirname):
"""Maintain a log of which RPC calls are made during testing."""
COVERAGE_DIR = dirname
def get_rpc_proxy(url, node_number, timeout=None):
url (str): URL of the RPC server to call
node_number (int): the node number (or id) that this calls to
timeout (int): HTTP timeout in seconds
AuthServiceProxy. convenience object for making RPC calls.
proxy_kwargs = {}
if timeout is not None:
proxy_kwargs['timeout'] = timeout
proxy = AuthServiceProxy(url, **proxy_kwargs)
proxy.url = url # store URL on proxy for info
coverage_logfile = coverage.get_filename(
COVERAGE_DIR, node_number) if COVERAGE_DIR else None
return coverage.AuthServiceProxyWrapper(proxy, coverage_logfile)
def p2p_port(n):
return 11000 + n + os.getpid()%999
def rpc_port(n):
return 12000 + n + os.getpid()%999
def check_json_precision():
"""Make sure json library being used does not lose precision converting BTC values"""
n = Decimal("20000000.00000003")
satoshis = int(json.loads(json.dumps(float(n)))*1.0e8)
if satoshis != 2000000000000003:
raise RuntimeError("JSON encode/decode loses precision")
def count_bytes(hex_string):
return len(bytearray.fromhex(hex_string))
def sync_blocks(rpc_connections, wait=1):
Wait until everybody has the same block count
while True:
counts = [ x.getblockcount() for x in rpc_connections ]
if counts == [ counts[0] ]*len(counts):
def sync_mempools(rpc_connections, wait=1):
Wait until everybody has the same transactions in their memory
while True:
pool = set(rpc_connections[0].getrawmempool())
num_match = 1
for i in range(1, len(rpc_connections)):
if set(rpc_connections[i].getrawmempool()) == pool:
num_match = num_match+1
if num_match == len(rpc_connections):
bitcoind_processes = {}
def initialize_datadir(dirname, n):
datadir = os.path.join(dirname, "node"+str(n))
if not os.path.isdir(datadir):
with open(os.path.join(datadir, "bitcoin.conf"), 'w') as f:
return datadir
def initialize_chain(test_dir):
Create (or copy from cache) a 200-block-long chain and
4 wallets.
bitcoind and bitcoin-cli must be in search path.
if (not os.path.isdir(os.path.join("cache","node0"))
or not os.path.isdir(os.path.join("cache","node1"))
or not os.path.isdir(os.path.join("cache","node2"))
or not os.path.isdir(os.path.join("cache","node3"))):
#find and delete old cache directories if any exist
for i in range(4):
if os.path.isdir(os.path.join("cache","node"+str(i))):
devnull = open(os.devnull, "w")
# Create cache directories, run bitcoinds:
for i in range(4):
datadir=initialize_datadir("cache", i)
args = [ os.getenv("BITCOIND", "bitcoind"), "-server", "-keypool=1", "-datadir="+datadir, "-discover=0" ]
if i > 0:
bitcoind_processes[i] = subprocess.Popen(args)
if os.getenv("PYTHON_DEBUG", ""):
print "initialize_chain: bitcoind started, calling bitcoin-cli -rpcwait getblockcount"
subprocess.check_call([ os.getenv("BITCOINCLI", "bitcoin-cli"), "-datadir="+datadir,
"-rpcwait", "getblockcount"], stdout=devnull)
if os.getenv("PYTHON_DEBUG", ""):
print "initialize_chain: bitcoin-cli -rpcwait getblockcount completed"
rpcs = []
for i in range(4):
url = "http://rt:rt@" % (rpc_port(i),)
rpcs.append(get_rpc_proxy(url, i))
sys.stderr.write("Error connecting to "+url+"\n")
# Create a 200-block-long chain; each of the 4 nodes
# gets 25 mature blocks and 25 immature.
# blocks are created with timestamps 10 minutes apart, starting
# at 1 Jan 2014
block_time = 1388534400
for i in range(2):
for peer in range(4):
for j in range(25):
set_node_times(rpcs, block_time)
block_time += 10*60
# Must sync before next peer starts generating blocks
# Shut them down, and clean up cache directories:
for i in range(4):
os.remove(log_filename("cache", i, "debug.log"))
os.remove(log_filename("cache", i, "db.log"))
os.remove(log_filename("cache", i, "peers.dat"))
os.remove(log_filename("cache", i, "fee_estimates.dat"))
for i in range(4):
from_dir = os.path.join("cache", "node"+str(i))
to_dir = os.path.join(test_dir, "node"+str(i))
shutil.copytree(from_dir, to_dir)
initialize_datadir(test_dir, i) # Overwrite port/rpcport in bitcoin.conf
def initialize_chain_clean(test_dir, num_nodes):
Create an empty blockchain and num_nodes wallets.
Useful if a test case wants complete control over initialization.
for i in range(num_nodes):
datadir=initialize_datadir(test_dir, i)
def _rpchost_to_args(rpchost):
'''Convert optional IP:port spec to rpcconnect/rpcport args'''
if rpchost is None:
return []
match = re.match('(\[[0-9a-fA-f:]+\]|[^:]+)(?::([0-9]+))?$', rpchost)
if not match:
raise ValueError('Invalid RPC host spec ' + rpchost)
rpcconnect =
rpcport =
if rpcconnect.startswith('['): # remove IPv6 [...] wrapping
rpcconnect = rpcconnect[1:-1]
rv = ['-rpcconnect=' + rpcconnect]
if rpcport:
rv += ['-rpcport=' + rpcport]
return rv
def start_node(i, dirname, extra_args=None, rpchost=None, timewait=None, binary=None):
Start a bitcoind and return RPC connection to it
datadir = os.path.join(dirname, "node"+str(i))
if binary is None:
binary = os.getenv("BITCOIND", "bitcoind")
# RPC tests still depend on free transactions
args = [ binary, "-datadir="+datadir, "-server", "-keypool=1", "-discover=0", "-rest", "-blockprioritysize=50000" ]
if extra_args is not None: args.extend(extra_args)
bitcoind_processes[i] = subprocess.Popen(args)
devnull = open(os.devnull, "w")
if os.getenv("PYTHON_DEBUG", ""):
print "start_node: bitcoind started, calling bitcoin-cli -rpcwait getblockcount"
subprocess.check_call([ os.getenv("BITCOINCLI", "bitcoin-cli"), "-datadir="+datadir] +
_rpchost_to_args(rpchost) +
["-rpcwait", "getblockcount"], stdout=devnull)
if os.getenv("PYTHON_DEBUG", ""):
print "start_node: calling bitcoin-cli -rpcwait getblockcount returned"
url = "http://rt:rt@%s:%d" % (rpchost or '', rpc_port(i))
proxy = get_rpc_proxy(url, i, timeout=timewait)
coverage.write_all_rpc_commands(COVERAGE_DIR, proxy)
return proxy
def start_nodes(num_nodes, dirname, extra_args=None, rpchost=None, binary=None):
Start multiple bitcoinds, return RPC connections to them
if extra_args is None: extra_args = [ None for i in range(num_nodes) ]
if binary is None: binary = [ None for i in range(num_nodes) ]
return [ start_node(i, dirname, extra_args[i], rpchost, binary=binary[i]) for i in range(num_nodes) ]
def log_filename(dirname, n_node, logname):
return os.path.join(dirname, "node"+str(n_node), "regtest", logname)
def stop_node(node, i):
del bitcoind_processes[i]
def stop_nodes(nodes):
for node in nodes:
del nodes[:] # Emptying array closes connections as a side effect
def set_node_times(nodes, t):
for node in nodes:
def wait_bitcoinds():
# Wait for all bitcoinds to cleanly exit
for bitcoind in bitcoind_processes.values():
def connect_nodes(from_connection, node_num):
ip_port = ""+str(p2p_port(node_num))
from_connection.addnode(ip_port, "onetry")
# poll until version handshake complete to avoid race conditions
# with transaction relaying
while any(peer['version'] == 0 for peer in from_connection.getpeerinfo()):
def connect_nodes_bi(nodes, a, b):
connect_nodes(nodes[a], b)
connect_nodes(nodes[b], a)
def find_output(node, txid, amount):
Return index to output of txid with value amount
Raises exception if there is none.
txdata = node.getrawtransaction(txid, 1)
for i in range(len(txdata["vout"])):
if txdata["vout"][i]["value"] == amount:
return i
raise RuntimeError("find_output txid %s : %s not found"%(txid,str(amount)))
def gather_inputs(from_node, amount_needed, confirmations_required=1):
Return a random set of unspent txouts that are enough to pay amount_needed
assert(confirmations_required >=0)
utxo = from_node.listunspent(confirmations_required)
inputs = []
total_in = Decimal("0.00000000")
while total_in < amount_needed and len(utxo) > 0:
t = utxo.pop()
total_in += t["amount"]
inputs.append({ "txid" : t["txid"], "vout" : t["vout"], "address" : t["address"] } )
if total_in < amount_needed:
raise RuntimeError("Insufficient funds: need %d, have %d"%(amount_needed, total_in))
return (total_in, inputs)
def make_change(from_node, amount_in, amount_out, fee):
Create change output(s), return them
outputs = {}
amount = amount_out+fee
change = amount_in - amount
if change > amount*2:
# Create an extra change output to break up big inputs
change_address = from_node.getnewaddress()
# Split change in two, being careful of rounding:
outputs[change_address] = Decimal(change/2).quantize(Decimal('0.00000001'), rounding=ROUND_DOWN)
change = amount_in - amount - outputs[change_address]
if change > 0:
outputs[from_node.getnewaddress()] = change
return outputs
def send_zeropri_transaction(from_node, to_node, amount, fee):
Create&broadcast a zero-priority transaction.
Returns (txid, hex-encoded-txdata)
Ensures transaction is zero-priority by first creating a send-to-self,
then using its output
# Create a send-to-self with confirmed inputs:
self_address = from_node.getnewaddress()
(total_in, inputs) = gather_inputs(from_node, amount+fee*2)
outputs = make_change(from_node, total_in, amount+fee, fee)
outputs[self_address] = float(amount+fee)
self_rawtx = from_node.createrawtransaction(inputs, outputs)
self_signresult = from_node.signrawtransaction(self_rawtx)
self_txid = from_node.sendrawtransaction(self_signresult["hex"], True)
vout = find_output(from_node, self_txid, amount+fee)
# Now immediately spend the output to create a 1-input, 1-output
# zero-priority transaction:
inputs = [ { "txid" : self_txid, "vout" : vout } ]
outputs = { to_node.getnewaddress() : float(amount) }
rawtx = from_node.createrawtransaction(inputs, outputs)
signresult = from_node.signrawtransaction(rawtx)
txid = from_node.sendrawtransaction(signresult["hex"], True)
return (txid, signresult["hex"])
def random_zeropri_transaction(nodes, amount, min_fee, fee_increment, fee_variants):
Create a random zero-priority transaction.
Returns (txid, hex-encoded-transaction-data, fee)
from_node = random.choice(nodes)
to_node = random.choice(nodes)
fee = min_fee + fee_increment*random.randint(0,fee_variants)
(txid, txhex) = send_zeropri_transaction(from_node, to_node, amount, fee)
return (txid, txhex, fee)
def random_transaction(nodes, amount, min_fee, fee_increment, fee_variants):
Create a random transaction.
Returns (txid, hex-encoded-transaction-data, fee)
from_node = random.choice(nodes)
to_node = random.choice(nodes)
fee = min_fee + fee_increment*random.randint(0,fee_variants)
(total_in, inputs) = gather_inputs(from_node, amount+fee)
outputs = make_change(from_node, total_in, amount, fee)
outputs[to_node.getnewaddress()] = float(amount)
rawtx = from_node.createrawtransaction(inputs, outputs)
signresult = from_node.signrawtransaction(rawtx)
txid = from_node.sendrawtransaction(signresult["hex"], True)
return (txid, signresult["hex"], fee)
def assert_equal(thing1, thing2):
if thing1 != thing2:
raise AssertionError("%s != %s"%(str(thing1),str(thing2)))
def assert_greater_than(thing1, thing2):
if thing1 <= thing2:
raise AssertionError("%s <= %s"%(str(thing1),str(thing2)))
def assert_raises(exc, fun, *args, **kwds):
fun(*args, **kwds)
except exc:
except Exception as e:
raise AssertionError("Unexpected exception raised: "+type(e).__name__)
raise AssertionError("No exception raised")
def assert_is_hex_string(string):
int(string, 16)
except Exception as e:
raise AssertionError(
"Couldn't interpret %r as hexadecimal; raised: %s" % (string, e))
def assert_is_hash_string(string, length=64):
if not isinstance(string, basestring):
raise AssertionError("Expected a string, got type %r" % type(string))
elif length and len(string) != length:
raise AssertionError(
"String of length %d expected; got %d" % (length, len(string)))
elif not re.match('[abcdef0-9]+$', string):
raise AssertionError(
"String %r contains invalid characters for a hash." % string)
def satoshi_round(amount):
return Decimal(amount).quantize(Decimal('0.00000001'), rounding=ROUND_DOWN)
def create_confirmed_utxos(fee, node, count):
utxos = node.listunspent()
iterations = count - len(utxos)
addr1 = node.getnewaddress()
addr2 = node.getnewaddress()
if iterations <= 0:
return utxos
for i in xrange(iterations):
t = utxos.pop()
inputs = []
inputs.append({ "txid" : t["txid"], "vout" : t["vout"]})
outputs = {}
send_value = t['amount'] - fee
outputs[addr1] = satoshi_round(send_value/2)
outputs[addr2] = satoshi_round(send_value/2)
raw_tx = node.createrawtransaction(inputs, outputs)
signed_tx = node.signrawtransaction(raw_tx)["hex"]
txid = node.sendrawtransaction(signed_tx)
while (node.getmempoolinfo()['size'] > 0):
utxos = node.listunspent()
assert(len(utxos) >= count)
return utxos
def gen_return_txouts():
# Some pre-processing to create a bunch of OP_RETURN txouts to insert into transactions we create
# So we have big transactions (and therefore can't fit very many into each block)
# create one script_pubkey
script_pubkey = "6a4d0200" #OP_RETURN OP_PUSH2 512 bytes
for i in xrange (512):
script_pubkey = script_pubkey + "01"
# concatenate 128 txouts of above script_pubkey which we'll insert before the txout for change
txouts = "81"
for k in xrange(128):
# add txout value
txouts = txouts + "0000000000000000"
# add length of script_pubkey
txouts = txouts + "fd0402"
# add script_pubkey
txouts = txouts + script_pubkey
return txouts
def create_lots_of_big_transactions(node, txouts, utxos, fee):
addr = node.getnewaddress()
txids = []
for i in xrange(len(utxos)):
t = utxos.pop()
inputs = []
inputs.append({ "txid" : t["txid"], "vout" : t["vout"]})
outputs = {}
send_value = t['amount'] - fee
outputs[addr] = satoshi_round(send_value)
rawtx = node.createrawtransaction(inputs, outputs)
newtx = rawtx[0:92]
newtx = newtx + txouts
newtx = newtx + rawtx[94:]
signresult = node.signrawtransaction(newtx, None, None, "NONE")
txid = node.sendrawtransaction(signresult["hex"], True)
return txids