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Add gitian build guide

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tags/v0.15.1
Wladimir J. van der Laan 7 years ago
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Gitian building
================

*Setup instructions for a gitian build of Bitcoin using a Debian VM or physical system.*

Gitian is the deterministic build process that is used to build the Bitcoin
Core executables [1]. It provides a way to be reasonably sure that the
executables are really built from source on github. It also makes sure that
the same, tested dependencies are used and statically built into the executable.

Multiple developers build the source code by following a specific descriptor
("recipe"), cryptographically sign the result, and upload the resulting signature.
These results are compared and only if they match, the build is accepted and uploaded
to bitcoin.org.

More independent gitian builders are needed, which is why I wrote this
guide. It is preferred to follow these steps yourself instead of using someone else's
VM image to avoid 'contaminating' the build.

[1] For all platforms except for MacOSX, at this point. Work for deterministic
builds for Mac is under way here: https://github.com/theuni/osx-cross-depends .

Table of Contents
------------------

- [Create a new VirtualBox VM](#create-a-new-virtualbox-vm)
- [Connecting to the VM](#connecting-to-the-vm)
- [Setting up Debian for gitian building](#setting-up-debian-for-gitian-building)
- [Installing gitian](#installing-gitian)
- [Setting up gitian images](#setting-up-gitian-images)
- [Getting and building the inputs](#getting-and-building-the-inputs)
- [Building Bitcoin](#building-bitcoin)
- [Building an alternative repository](#building-an-alternative-repository)
- [Signing externally](#signing-externally)
- [Uploading signatures](#uploading-signatures)

Create a new VirtualBox VM
---------------------------

The first step is to create a new Virtual Machine, which will be explained in
this section. This VM will be used to do the Gitian builds. In this guide it
will be explained how to set up the environment, and how to get the builds
started.

Debian Linux was chosen as the host distribution because it has a lightweight install (in
contrast to Ubuntu) and is readily available. We here show the steps for
VirtualBox [1], but any kind of virtualization can be used. You can also install
on actual hardware instead of using a VM, in this case you can skip this section.

In the VirtualBox GUI click "Create" and choose the following parameters in the wizard:

![](gitian-building/create_vm_page1.png =100x20)

- Type: Linux, Debian (64 bit)

![](gitian-building/create_vm_memsize.png)

- Memory Size: at least 1024MB, anything lower will really slow the build down

![](gitian-building/create_vm_hard_drive.png)

- Hard Drive: Create a virtual hard drive now
![](gitian-building/create_vm_hard_drive_file_type.png)

- Hard Drive file type: Use the default, VDI (VirtualBox Disk Image)

![](gitian-building/create_vm_storage_physical_hard_drive.png)
- Storage on Physical hard drive: Dynamically Allocated
![](gitian-building/create_vm_file_location_size.png)

- Disk size: at least 40GB; as low as 20GB *may* be possible, but better to err on the safe side
- Push the `Create` button

Get the [Debian 7.4 net installer](http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/7.4.0/amd64/iso-cd/debian-7.4.0-amd64-netinst.iso).
This DVD image can be validated using a SHA256 hashing tool, for example on
Unixy OSes by entering the following in a terminal:

echo "b712a141bc60269db217d3b3e456179bd6b181645f90e4aac9c42ed63de492e9 /home/orion/Downloads/debian-7.4.0-amd64-netinst.iso" | sha256sum -c
# (must return OK)

After creating the VM, we need to configure it.

- Click the `Settings` button, then go to the `Network` tab. Adapter 1 should be attacked to `NAT`.

![](gitian-building/network_settings.png)

- Click `Advanced`, then `Port Forwarding`. We want to set up a port through where we can reach the VM to get files in and out.
- Create a new rule by clicking the plus icon.

![](gitian-building/port_forwarding_rules.png)

- Set up the new rule the following way:
- Name: `SSH`
- Protocol: `TCP`
- Leave Host IP empty
- Host Port: `22222`
- Leave Guest IP empty
- Guest Port: `22`

- Click `Ok` twice to save.

Then start the VM. On the first launch you will be asked for a CD or DVD image. Choose the downloaded iso.

![](gitian-building/select_startup_disk.png)

[1] https://www.virtualbox.org/

Installing Debian
------------------

In this section it will be explained how to install Debian on the newly created VM.

- Choose the non-graphical installer. We do not need the graphical environment, it will only increase installation time and disk usage.

![](gitian-building/debian_install_1_boot_menu.png)

**Note**: Navigation in the Debian installer: To keep a setting at the default
and proceed, just press `Enter`. To select a different button, press `Tab`.

- Choose locale and keyboard settings (doesn't matter, you can just go with the defaults or select your own information)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_2_select_a_language.png)
![](gitian-building/debian_install_3_select_location.png)
![](gitian-building/debian_install_4_configure_keyboard.png)

- The VM will detect network settings using DHCP, this should all proceed automatically
- Configure the network:
- System name `debian`.
- Leave domain name empty.

![](gitian-building/debian_install_5_configure_the_network.png)

- Choose a root password and enter it twice (and remember it for later)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_6a_set_up_root_password.png)

- Name the new user `debian` (the full name doesn't matter, you can leave it empty)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_7_set_up_user_fullname.png)
![](gitian-building/debian_install_8_set_up_username.png)

- Choose a user password and enter it twice (and remember it for later)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_9_user_password.png)

- The installer will set up the clock using a time server, this process should be automatic
- Set up the clock: choose a time zone (depends on the locale settings that you picked earlier; specifics don't matter)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_10_configure_clock.png)

- Disk setup
- Partitioning method: Guided - Use the entire disk
![](gitian-building/debian_install_11_partition_disks.png)

- Select disk to partition: SCSI1 (0,0,0)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_12_choose_disk.png)

- Partitioning scheme: All files in one partition
![](gitian-building/debian_install_13_partition_scheme.png)

- Finish partitioning and write changes to disk -> *Yes* (`Tab`, `Enter` to select the `Yes` button)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_14_finish.png)
![](gitian-building/debian_install_15_write_changes.png)

- The base system will be installed, this will take a minute or so
- Choose a mirror (any will do)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_16_choose_a_mirror.png)

- Enter proxy information (unless you are on an intranet, you can leave this empty)

![](gitian-building/debian_install_18_proxy_settings.png)

- Wait a bit while 'Select and install software' runs
- Participate in popularity contest -> *No*
- Choose software to install. We need just the base system.

![](gitian-building/debian_install_19_software_selection.png)

- Make sure only 'SSH server' and 'Standard System Utilities' are checked
- Uncheck 'Debian Desktop Environment' and 'Print Server'

![](gitian-building/debian_install_20_install_grub.png)

- Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record? -> Yes

![](gitian-building/debian_install_21_finish_installation.png)

- Installation Complete -> *Continue*
- After installation, the VM will reboot and you will have a working Debian VM. Congratulations!

Connecting to the VM
----------------------

After the VM has booted you can connect to it using SSH, and files can be copied from and to the VM using a SFTP utility.
Connect to `localhost`, port `22222` (or the port configured when installing the VM).
On Windows you can use putty[1] and WinSCP[2].

For example to connect as `root` from a Linux command prompt use

$ ssh root@localhost -p 22222
The authenticity of host '[localhost]:22222 ([127.0.0.1]:22222)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is 8e:71:f9:5b:62:46:de:44:01:da:fb:5f:34:b5:f2:18.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '[localhost]:22222' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@localhost's password: (enter root password configured during install)
Linux debian 3.2.0-4-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 3.2.54-2 x86_64
root@debian:~#

Replace `root` with `debian` to log in as user.

[1] http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
[2] http://winscp.net/eng/index.php

Setting up Debian for gitian building
--------------------------------------

In this section we will be setting up the Debian installation for Gitian building.

First we need to log in as `root` to set up dependencies and make sure that our
user can use the sudo command. Type/paste the following in the terminal:


```bash
apt-get install git ruby sudo apt-cacher-ng qemu-utils debootstrap lxc python-cheetah parted kpartx bridge-utils
adduser debian sudo
```

When you get a colorful screen with a question about the 'LXC directory', just
go with the default (`/var/lib/lxc`).

Then set up LXC and the rest with the following is a complex jumble of settings and workarounds:

```bash
# the version of lxc-start in Debian 7.4 needs to run as root, so make sure
# that the build script can exectute it without providing a password
echo "%sudo ALL=NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/lxc-start" > /etc/sudoers.d/gitian-lxc
# add cgroup for LXC
echo "cgroup /sys/fs/cgroup cgroup defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
# make /etc/rc.local script that sets up bridge between guest and host
echo '#!/bin/sh -e' > /etc/rc.local
echo 'brctl addbr br0' >> /etc/rc.local
echo 'ifconfig br0 10.0.3.2/24 up' >> /etc/rc.local
echo 'exit 0' >> /etc/rc.local
# make sure that USE_LXC is always set when logging in as debian
echo 'export USE_LXC=1' >> /home/debian/.profile
reboot
```

At the end the VM is rebooted to make sure that the changes take effect.

**Note**: If you're following this guide on a physical system instead of a VirtualBox VM you could use `10.0.2.2` instead
of `10.0.3.2` in the above `ifconfig` line. This avoids having to patch gitian-builder in next section.

Installing gitian
------------------

Re-login as the user `debian` that was created during installation.
The rest of the steps in this guide will be performed as that user.

There is no `python-vm-builder` package in Debian, so we need to install it from source ourselves,

```bash
wget http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/pool/universe/v/vm-builder/vm-builder_0.12.4+bzr489.orig.tar.gz
echo "ec12e0070a007989561bfee5862c89a32c301992dd2771c4d5078ef1b3014f03 vm-builder_0.12.4+bzr489.orig.tar.gz" | sha256sum -c
# (verification -- must return OK)
tar -zxvf vm-builder_0.12.4+bzr489.orig.tar.gz
cd vm-builder-0.12.4+bzr489
sudo python setup.py install
cd ..
```

**Note**: When sudo asks for a password, enter the password for the user *debian* not for *root*.

Clone the git repositories for bitcoin and gitian,

```bash
git clone https://github.com/devrandom/gitian-builder.git
git clone https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin
```

We need to change the guest IP range for the gitian builder because otherwise it will
collide with VirtualBox its NAT IP range. Gitian does not have a way yet to configure
this, so we need to patch the IPs using `sed`. This is not nice but it will
have to do for now... (a [pull request
(#52)](https://github.com/devrandom/gitian-builder/pull/52) to make this
configurable without patching has been submitted):

```bash
sed -i 's/10.0.2.2/10.0.3.2/g' gitian-builder/target-bin/bootstrap-fixup
sed -i 's/10.0.2.5/10.0.3.5/g' gitian-builder/etc/lxc.config.in
```

*note* After you update the gitian-builder repository, you may need to repeat these manual changes.

Setting up gitian images
-------------------------

Gitian needs virtual images of the operating system to build in.
Currently this is Ubuntu Precise for both x86 architectures.
These images will be copied and used every time that a build is started to
make sure that the build is deterministic.
Creating the images will take a while, but only has to be done once.

Execute the following as user `debian`:

```bash
cd gitian-builder
bin/make-base-vm --lxc --arch i386 --suite precise
bin/make-base-vm --lxc --arch amd64 --suite precise
```

There will be a lot of warnings printed during build of the images. These can be ignored.

**Note**: When sudo asks for a password, enter the password for the user *debian* not for *root*.

Getting and building the inputs
--------------------------------

In [doc/release-process.md](release-process.md) in the bitcoin repository under 'Fetch and build inputs'.
you will find a list of `wget` commands that can be executed to get the dependencies.

I needed to add `--no-check-certificate` to the OpenSSL wget line to make it work.
Likely this is because the ca-certificates in Debian 7.4 is fairly old. This does not create a
security issue as the gitian descriptors check integrity of the input archives and refuse to work
if any one is corrupted.

After downloading the archives, execute the `gbuild` commends to build the dependencies.
This can take a long time, but only has to be done when the dependencies change, for example
to upgrade the used version.

**Note**: Do not forget to copy the result from `build/out` to `inputs` after every gbuild command! This will save
you a lot of time.

At any time you can check the package installation and build progress with

```bash
tail -f var/install.log
tail -f var/build.log
```

To make sure that the output is exactly the same, and that the time, date, locale and
even the ordering of files in the file system doesn't influence the result,
some special precautions are taken. This means that the result is expected to
be the same every time. The expected SHA256 hashes of the intermediate
inputs (at the time of release 0.9.0) are:

05fe8e9aef00d295f24a94deef7d3a918af5aeef371ba57fdd5a6acd8c51f6cb bitcoin-deps-linux32-gitian-r3.zip
4227aa9d9fedbb4265b8d10a4f78b7435f34b00a54eb4d662bf78f59c6e70c27 bitcoin-deps-linux64-gitian-r3.zip
f29b7d9577417333fb56e023c2977f5726a7c297f320b175a4108cf7cd4c2d29 boost-linux32-1.55.0-gitian-r1.zip
88232451c4104f7eb16e469ac6474fd1231bd485687253f7b2bdf46c0781d535 boost-linux64-1.55.0-gitian-r1.zip
60dc2d3b61e9c7d5dbe2f90d5955772ad748a47918ff2d8b74e8db9b1b91c909 boost-win32-1.55.0-gitian-r6.zip
f65fcaf346bc7b73bc8db3a8614f4f6bee2f61fcbe495e9881133a7c2612a167 boost-win64-1.55.0-gitian-r6.zip
0ba0855e1084132d05fd8687c19d8430b91f6c410a9ab7938e4fea650c2b22c8 bitcoin-deps-win32-gitian-r10.zip
5f9ffba0c13ddefc1d339f66ab973ea64623c9cc1f9078cb2b145bce86bd28e2 bitcoin-deps-win64-gitian-r10.zip
963e3e5e85879010a91143c90a711a5d1d5aba992e38672cdf7b54e42c56b2f1 qt-win32-5.2.0-gitian-r2.zip
751c579830d173ef3e6f194e83d18b92ebef6df03289db13ab77a52b6bc86ef0 qt-win64-5.2.0-gitian-r2.zip
e2e403e1a08869c7eed4d4293bce13d51ec6a63592918b90ae215a0eceb44cb4 protobuf-win32-2.5.0-gitian-r4.zip
a0999037e8b0ef9ade13efd88fee261ba401f5ca910068b7e0cd3262ba667db0 protobuf-win64-2.5.0-gitian-r4.zip

Building Bitcoin
----------------

To build Bitcoin (for Linux and/or Windows) just follow the steps under 'perform
gitian builds' in [doc/release-process.md](release-process.md) in the bitcoin repository.

Output from `gbuild` will look something like

Initialized empty Git repository in /home/debian/gitian-builder/inputs/bitcoin/.git/
remote: Reusing existing pack: 35606, done.
remote: Total 35606 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (35606/35606), 26.52 MiB | 4.28 MiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (25724/25724), done.
From https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin
... (new tags, new branch etc)
--- Building for precise i386 ---
Stopping target if it is up
Making a new image copy
stdin: is not a tty
Starting target
Checking if target is up
Preparing build environment
Updating apt-get repository (log in var/install.log)
Installing additional packages (log in var/install.log)
Grabbing package manifest
stdin: is not a tty
Creating build script (var/build-script)
lxc-start: Connection refused - inotify event with no name (mask 32768)
Running build script (log in var/build.log)

As when building the dependencies, the progress of package installation and building
can be inspected in `var/install.log` and `var/build.log`.

Building an alternative repository
-----------------------------------

If you want to do a test build of a pull on github it can be useful to point
the gitian builder at an alternative repository, using the same descriptors
and inputs.

For example:
```bash
URL=https://github.com/laanwj/bitcoin.git
COMMIT=2014_03_windows_unicode_path
./bin/gbuild --commit bitcoin=${COMMIT} --url bitcoin=${URL} ../bitcoin/contrib/gitian-descriptors/gitian-linux.yml
./bin/gbuild --commit bitcoin=${COMMIT} --url bitcoin=${URL} ../bitcoin/contrib/gitian-descriptors/gitian-win.yml
```

Signing externally
-------------------

If you want to do the PGP signing on another device that's possible too; just define `SIGNER` as mentioned
and follow the steps in the build process as normally.

gpg: skipped "laanwj": secret key not available

When you execute `gsign` you will get an error from GPG, which can be ignored. Copy the resulting `.assert` files
in `gitian.sigs` to your signing machine and do

```bash
gpg --detach-sign ${VERSION}/${SIGNER}/bitcoin-build.assert
gpg --detach-sign ${VERSION}-win/${SIGNER}/bitcoin-build.assert
```

This will create the `.sig` files that can be committed together with the `.assert` files to assert your
gitian build.

Uploading signatures
---------------------

After building and signing you can push your signatures (both the `.assert` and
`.assert.sig` files) to the
[bitcoin/gitian.sigs](https://github.com/bitcoin/gitian.sigs/) repository, or
if not possible create a pull request. You can also mail the files to me
(laanwj@gmail.com) and I'll commit them.


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