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/**********************************************************************
* Copyright (c) 2014 Pieter Wuille *
* Distributed under the MIT software license, see the accompanying *
* file COPYING or http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php.*
**********************************************************************/
#ifndef _SECP256K1_SCALAR_IMPL_H_
#define _SECP256K1_SCALAR_IMPL_H_
#include <string.h>
#include "group.h"
#include "scalar.h"
#if defined HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include "libsecp256k1-config.h"
#endif
#if defined(USE_SCALAR_4X64)
#include "scalar_4x64_impl.h"
#elif defined(USE_SCALAR_8X32)
#include "scalar_8x32_impl.h"
#else
#error "Please select scalar implementation"
#endif
typedef struct {
#ifndef USE_NUM_NONE
secp256k1_num_t order;
#endif
#ifdef USE_ENDOMORPHISM
secp256k1_scalar_t minus_lambda, minus_b1, minus_b2, g1, g2;
#endif
} secp256k1_scalar_consts_t;
static const secp256k1_scalar_consts_t *secp256k1_scalar_consts = NULL;
static void secp256k1_scalar_start(void) {
if (secp256k1_scalar_consts != NULL)
return;
/* Allocate. */
secp256k1_scalar_consts_t *ret = (secp256k1_scalar_consts_t*)malloc(sizeof(secp256k1_scalar_consts_t));
#ifndef USE_NUM_NONE
static const unsigned char secp256k1_scalar_consts_order[] = {
0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,
0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFF,0xFE,
0xBA,0xAE,0xDC,0xE6,0xAF,0x48,0xA0,0x3B,
0xBF,0xD2,0x5E,0x8C,0xD0,0x36,0x41,0x41
};
secp256k1_num_set_bin(&ret->order, secp256k1_scalar_consts_order, sizeof(secp256k1_scalar_consts_order));
#endif
#ifdef USE_ENDOMORPHISM
/**
* Lambda is a scalar which has the property for secp256k1 that point multiplication by
* it is efficiently computable (see secp256k1_gej_mul_lambda). */
static const unsigned char secp256k1_scalar_consts_lambda[32] = {
0x53,0x63,0xad,0x4c,0xc0,0x5c,0x30,0xe0,
0xa5,0x26,0x1c,0x02,0x88,0x12,0x64,0x5a,
0x12,0x2e,0x22,0xea,0x20,0x81,0x66,0x78,
0xdf,0x02,0x96,0x7c,0x1b,0x23,0xbd,0x72
};
/**
* "Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography" (Hankerson, Menezes, Vanstone) gives an algorithm
* (algorithm 3.74) to find k1 and k2 given k, such that k1 + k2 * lambda == k mod n, and k1
* and k2 have a small size.
* It relies on constants a1, b1, a2, b2. These constants for the value of lambda above are:
*
* - a1 = {0x30,0x86,0xd2,0x21,0xa7,0xd4,0x6b,0xcd,0xe8,0x6c,0x90,0xe4,0x92,0x84,0xeb,0x15}
* - b1 = -{0xe4,0x43,0x7e,0xd6,0x01,0x0e,0x88,0x28,0x6f,0x54,0x7f,0xa9,0x0a,0xbf,0xe4,0xc3}
* - a2 = {0x01,0x14,0xca,0x50,0xf7,0xa8,0xe2,0xf3,0xf6,0x57,0xc1,0x10,0x8d,0x9d,0x44,0xcf,0xd8}
* - b2 = {0x30,0x86,0xd2,0x21,0xa7,0xd4,0x6b,0xcd,0xe8,0x6c,0x90,0xe4,0x92,0x84,0xeb,0x15}
*
* The algorithm then computes c1 = round(b1 * k / n) and c2 = round(b2 * k / n), and gives
* k1 = k - (c1*a1 + c2*a2) and k2 = -(c1*b1 + c2*b2). Instead, we use modular arithmetic, and
* compute k1 as k - k2 * lambda, avoiding the need for constants a1 and a2.
*
* g1, g2 are precomputed constants used to replace division with a rounded multiplication
* when decomposing the scalar for an endomorphism-based point multiplication.
*
* The possibility of using precomputed estimates is mentioned in "Guide to Elliptic Curve
* Cryptography" (Hankerson, Menezes, Vanstone) in section 3.5.
*
* The derivation is described in the paper "Efficient Software Implementation of Public-Key
* Cryptography on Sensor Networks Using the MSP430X Microcontroller" (Gouvea, Oliveira, Lopez),
* Section 4.3 (here we use a somewhat higher-precision estimate):
* d = a1*b2 - b1*a2
* g1 = round((2^272)*b2/d)
* g2 = round((2^272)*b1/d)
*
* (Note that 'd' is also equal to the curve order here because [a1,b1] and [a2,b2] are found
* as outputs of the Extended Euclidean Algorithm on inputs 'order' and 'lambda').
*/
static const unsigned char secp256k1_scalar_consts_minus_b1[32] = {
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
0xe4,0x43,0x7e,0xd6,0x01,0x0e,0x88,0x28,
0x6f,0x54,0x7f,0xa9,0x0a,0xbf,0xe4,0xc3
};
static const unsigned char secp256k1_scalar_consts_b2[32] = {
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
0x30,0x86,0xd2,0x21,0xa7,0xd4,0x6b,0xcd,
0xe8,0x6c,0x90,0xe4,0x92,0x84,0xeb,0x15
};
static const unsigned char secp256k1_scalar_consts_g1[32] = {
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x30,0x86,
0xd2,0x21,0xa7,0xd4,0x6b,0xcd,0xe8,0x6c,
0x90,0xe4,0x92,0x84,0xeb,0x15,0x3d,0xab
};
static const unsigned char secp256k1_scalar_consts_g2[32] = {
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0xe4,0x43,
0x7e,0xd6,0x01,0x0e,0x88,0x28,0x6f,0x54,
0x7f,0xa9,0x0a,0xbf,0xe4,0xc4,0x22,0x12
};
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(&ret->minus_lambda, secp256k1_scalar_consts_lambda, NULL);
secp256k1_scalar_negate(&ret->minus_lambda, &ret->minus_lambda);
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(&ret->minus_b1, secp256k1_scalar_consts_minus_b1, NULL);
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(&ret->minus_b2, secp256k1_scalar_consts_b2, NULL);
secp256k1_scalar_negate(&ret->minus_b2, &ret->minus_b2);
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(&ret->g1, secp256k1_scalar_consts_g1, NULL);
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(&ret->g2, secp256k1_scalar_consts_g2, NULL);
#endif
/* Set the global pointer. */
secp256k1_scalar_consts = ret;
}
static void secp256k1_scalar_stop(void) {
if (secp256k1_scalar_consts == NULL)
return;
secp256k1_scalar_consts_t *c = (secp256k1_scalar_consts_t*)secp256k1_scalar_consts;
secp256k1_scalar_consts = NULL;
free(c);
}
#ifndef USE_NUM_NONE
static void secp256k1_scalar_get_num(secp256k1_num_t *r, const secp256k1_scalar_t *a) {
unsigned char c[32];
secp256k1_scalar_get_b32(c, a);
secp256k1_num_set_bin(r, c, 32);
}
static void secp256k1_scalar_order_get_num(secp256k1_num_t *r) {
*r = secp256k1_scalar_consts->order;
}
#endif
static void secp256k1_scalar_inverse(secp256k1_scalar_t *r, const secp256k1_scalar_t *x) {
/* First compute x ^ (2^N - 1) for some values of N. */
secp256k1_scalar_t x2, x3, x4, x6, x7, x8, x15, x30, x60, x120, x127;
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x2, x);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x2, &x2, x);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x3, &x2);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x3, &x3, x);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x4, &x3);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x4, &x4, x);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x6, &x4);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x6, &x6);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x6, &x6, &x2);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x7, &x6);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x7, &x7, x);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x8, &x7);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x8, &x8, x);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x15, &x8);
for (int i=0; i<6; i++)
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x15, &x15);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x15, &x15, &x7);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x30, &x15);
for (int i=0; i<14; i++)
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x30, &x30);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x30, &x30, &x15);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x60, &x30);
for (int i=0; i<29; i++)
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x60, &x60);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x60, &x60, &x30);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x120, &x60);
for (int i=0; i<59; i++)
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x120, &x120);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x120, &x120, &x60);
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x127, &x120);
for (int i=0; i<6; i++)
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(&x127, &x127);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&x127, &x127, &x7);
/* Then accumulate the final result (t starts at x127). */
secp256k1_scalar_t *t = &x127;
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x3); /* 111 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x3); /* 111 */
for (int i=0; i<3; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x2); /* 11 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x3); /* 111 */
for (int i=0; i<5; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x3); /* 111 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x2); /* 11 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<5; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x4); /* 1111 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<3; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 000 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<10; i++) /* 0000000 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x3); /* 111 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x3); /* 111 */
for (int i=0; i<9; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x8); /* 11111111 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<3; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<3; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<5; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x4); /* 1111 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<5; i++) /* 000 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x2); /* 11 */
for (int i=0; i<4; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x2); /* 11 */
for (int i=0; i<2; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<8; i++) /* 000000 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x2); /* 11 */
for (int i=0; i<3; i++) /* 0 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, &x2); /* 11 */
for (int i=0; i<3; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<6; i++) /* 00000 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(t, t, x); /* 1 */
for (int i=0; i<8; i++) /* 00 */
secp256k1_scalar_sqr(t, t);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(r, t, &x6); /* 111111 */
}
static void secp256k1_scalar_inverse_var(secp256k1_scalar_t *r, const secp256k1_scalar_t *x) {
#if defined(USE_SCALAR_INV_BUILTIN)
secp256k1_scalar_inverse(r, x);
#elif defined(USE_SCALAR_INV_NUM)
unsigned char b[32];
secp256k1_scalar_get_b32(b, x);
secp256k1_num_t n;
secp256k1_num_set_bin(&n, b, 32);
secp256k1_num_mod_inverse(&n, &n, &secp256k1_scalar_consts->order);
secp256k1_num_get_bin(b, 32, &n);
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(r, b, NULL);
#else
#error "Please select scalar inverse implementation"
#endif
}
#ifdef USE_ENDOMORPHISM
static void secp256k1_scalar_split_lambda_var(secp256k1_scalar_t *r1, secp256k1_scalar_t *r2, const secp256k1_scalar_t *a) {
VERIFY_CHECK(r1 != a);
VERIFY_CHECK(r2 != a);
secp256k1_scalar_t c1, c2;
secp256k1_scalar_mul_shift_var(&c1, a, &secp256k1_scalar_consts->g1, 272);
secp256k1_scalar_mul_shift_var(&c2, a, &secp256k1_scalar_consts->g2, 272);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&c1, &c1, &secp256k1_scalar_consts->minus_b1);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(&c2, &c2, &secp256k1_scalar_consts->minus_b2);
secp256k1_scalar_add(r2, &c1, &c2);
secp256k1_scalar_mul(r1, r2, &secp256k1_scalar_consts->minus_lambda);
secp256k1_scalar_add(r1, r1, a);
}
#endif
#endif