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Add scalar blinding and a secp256k1_context_randomize() call.

This computes (n-b)G + bG with random value b, in place of nG in
 ecmult_gen() for signing.

This is intended to reduce exposure to potential power/EMI sidechannels
 during signing and pubkey generation by blinding the secret value with
 another value which is hopefully unknown to the attacker.

It may not be very helpful if the attacker is able to observe the setup
 or if even the scalar addition has an unacceptable leak, but it has low
 overhead in any case and the security should be purely additive on top
 of the existing defenses against sidechannels.
master
Gregory Maxwell 8 years ago
parent
commit
d2275795ff
  1. 12
      include/secp256k1.h
  2. 4
      src/ecmult_gen.h
  3. 62
      src/ecmult_gen_impl.h
  4. 3
      src/group.h
  5. 11
      src/group_impl.h
  6. 7
      src/secp256k1.c
  7. 113
      src/tests.c

12
include/secp256k1.h

@ -328,6 +328,18 @@ SECP256K1_WARN_UNUSED_RESULT int secp256k1_ec_pubkey_tweak_mul( @@ -328,6 +328,18 @@ SECP256K1_WARN_UNUSED_RESULT int secp256k1_ec_pubkey_tweak_mul(
const unsigned char *tweak
) SECP256K1_ARG_NONNULL(1) SECP256K1_ARG_NONNULL(2) SECP256K1_ARG_NONNULL(4);
/** Updates the context randomization.
* Returns: 1: randomization successfully updated
* 0: error
* In: ctx: pointer to a context object (cannot be NULL)
* seed32: pointer to a 32-byte random seed (NULL resets to initial state)
*/
SECP256K1_WARN_UNUSED_RESULT int secp256k1_context_randomize(
secp256k1_context_t* ctx,
const unsigned char *seed32
) SECP256K1_ARG_NONNULL(1);
# ifdef __cplusplus
}
# endif

4
src/ecmult_gen.h

@ -24,6 +24,8 @@ typedef struct { @@ -24,6 +24,8 @@ typedef struct {
* the intermediate sums while computing a*G.
*/
secp256k1_ge_storage_t (*prec)[64][16]; /* prec[j][i] = 16^j * i * G + U_i */
secp256k1_scalar_t blind;
secp256k1_gej_t initial;
} secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t;
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_init(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t* ctx);
@ -36,4 +38,6 @@ static int secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_is_built(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_cont @@ -36,4 +38,6 @@ static int secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_is_built(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_cont
/** Multiply with the generator: R = a*G */
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t* ctx, secp256k1_gej_t *r, const secp256k1_scalar_t *a);
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx, const unsigned char *seed32);
#endif

62
src/ecmult_gen_impl.h

@ -1,5 +1,5 @@ @@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/**********************************************************************
* Copyright (c) 2013, 2014 Pieter Wuille *
* Copyright (c) 2013, 2014, 2015 Pieter Wuille, Gregory Maxwell *
* Distributed under the MIT software license, see the accompanying *
* file COPYING or http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php.*
**********************************************************************/
@ -10,6 +10,7 @@ @@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
#include "scalar.h"
#include "group.h"
#include "ecmult_gen.h"
#include "hash_impl.h"
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_init(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx) {
ctx->prec = NULL;
@ -74,6 +75,7 @@ static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_build(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *c @@ -74,6 +75,7 @@ static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_build(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *c
secp256k1_ge_to_storage(&(*ctx->prec)[j][i], &prec[j*16 + i]);
}
}
secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(ctx, NULL);
}
static int secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_is_built(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t* ctx) {
@ -87,24 +89,31 @@ static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_clone(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *d @@ -87,24 +89,31 @@ static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_clone(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *d
} else {
dst->prec = (secp256k1_ge_storage_t (*)[64][16])checked_malloc(sizeof(*dst->prec));
memcpy(dst->prec, src->prec, sizeof(*dst->prec));
dst->initial = src->initial;
dst->blind = src->blind;
}
}
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_clear(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx) {
free(ctx->prec);
secp256k1_scalar_clear(&ctx->blind);
secp256k1_gej_clear(&ctx->initial);
ctx->prec = NULL;
}
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx, secp256k1_gej_t *r, const secp256k1_scalar_t *gn) {
secp256k1_ge_t add;
secp256k1_ge_storage_t adds;
secp256k1_scalar_t gnb;
int bits;
int i, j;
memset(&adds, 0, sizeof(adds));
secp256k1_gej_set_infinity(r);
*r = ctx->initial;
/* Blind scalar/point multiplication by computing (n-b)G + bG instead of nG. */
secp256k1_scalar_add(&gnb, gn, &ctx->blind);
add.infinity = 0;
for (j = 0; j < 64; j++) {
bits = secp256k1_scalar_get_bits(gn, j * 4, 4);
bits = secp256k1_scalar_get_bits(&gnb, j * 4, 4);
for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
/** This uses a conditional move to avoid any secret data in array indexes.
* _Any_ use of secret indexes has been demonstrated to result in timing
@ -123,6 +132,53 @@ static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx, secp @@ -123,6 +132,53 @@ static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen(const secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx, secp
}
bits = 0;
secp256k1_ge_clear(&add);
secp256k1_scalar_clear(&gnb);
}
/* Setup blinding values for secp256k1_ecmult_gen. */
static void secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_t *ctx, const unsigned char *seed32) {
secp256k1_scalar_t b;
secp256k1_gej_t gb;
secp256k1_fe_t s;
unsigned char nonce32[32];
secp256k1_rfc6979_hmac_sha256_t rng;
int retry;
if (!seed32) {
/* When seed is NULL, reset the initial point and blinding value. */
secp256k1_gej_set_ge(&ctx->initial, &secp256k1_ge_const_g);
secp256k1_gej_neg(&ctx->initial, &ctx->initial);
secp256k1_scalar_set_int(&ctx->blind, 1);
}
/* The prior blinding value (if not reset) is chained forward by including it in the hash. */
secp256k1_scalar_get_b32(nonce32, &ctx->blind);
/** Using a CSPRNG allows a failure free interface, avoids needing large amounts of random data,
* and guards against weak or adversarial seeds. This is a simpler and safer interface than
* asking the caller for blinding values directly and expecting them to retry on failure.
*/
secp256k1_rfc6979_hmac_sha256_initialize(&rng, seed32 ? seed32 : nonce32, 32, nonce32, 32, NULL, 0);
/* Retry for out of range results to achieve uniformity. */
do {
secp256k1_rfc6979_hmac_sha256_generate(&rng, nonce32, 32);
retry = !secp256k1_fe_set_b32(&s, nonce32);
retry |= secp256k1_fe_is_zero(&s);
} while (retry);
/* Randomize the projection to defend against multiplier sidechannels. */
secp256k1_gej_rescale(&ctx->initial, &s);
secp256k1_fe_clear(&s);
do {
secp256k1_rfc6979_hmac_sha256_generate(&rng, nonce32, 32);
secp256k1_scalar_set_b32(&b, nonce32, &retry);
/* A blinding value of 0 works, but would undermine the projection hardening. */
retry |= secp256k1_scalar_is_zero(&b);
} while (retry);
secp256k1_rfc6979_hmac_sha256_finalize(&rng);
memset(nonce32, 0, 32);
secp256k1_ecmult_gen(ctx, &gb, &b);
secp256k1_scalar_negate(&b, &b);
ctx->blind = b;
ctx->initial = gb;
secp256k1_scalar_clear(&b);
secp256k1_gej_clear(&gb);
}
#endif

3
src/group.h

@ -115,4 +115,7 @@ static void secp256k1_ge_from_storage(secp256k1_ge_t *r, const secp256k1_ge_stor @@ -115,4 +115,7 @@ static void secp256k1_ge_from_storage(secp256k1_ge_t *r, const secp256k1_ge_stor
/** If flag is true, set *r equal to *a; otherwise leave it. Constant-time. */
static void secp256k1_ge_storage_cmov(secp256k1_ge_storage_t *r, const secp256k1_ge_storage_t *a, int flag);
/** Rescale a jacobian point by b which must be non-zero. Constant-time. */
static void secp256k1_gej_rescale(secp256k1_gej_t *r, const secp256k1_fe_t *b);
#endif

11
src/group_impl.h

@ -396,6 +396,17 @@ static void secp256k1_gej_add_ge(secp256k1_gej_t *r, const secp256k1_gej_t *a, c @@ -396,6 +396,17 @@ static void secp256k1_gej_add_ge(secp256k1_gej_t *r, const secp256k1_gej_t *a, c
r->infinity = infinity;
}
static void secp256k1_gej_rescale(secp256k1_gej_t *r, const secp256k1_fe_t *s) {
/* Operations: 4 mul, 1 sqr */
secp256k1_fe_t zz;
VERIFY_CHECK(!secp256k1_fe_is_zero(s));
secp256k1_fe_sqr(&zz, s);
secp256k1_fe_mul(&r->x, &r->x, &zz); /* r->x *= s^2 */
secp256k1_fe_mul(&r->y, &r->y, &zz);
secp256k1_fe_mul(&r->y, &r->y, s); /* r->y *= s^3 */
secp256k1_fe_mul(&r->z, &r->z, s); /* r->z *= s */
}
static void secp256k1_ge_to_storage(secp256k1_ge_storage_t *r, const secp256k1_ge_t *a) {
secp256k1_fe_t x, y;
VERIFY_CHECK(!a->infinity);

7
src/secp256k1.c

@ -410,3 +410,10 @@ int secp256k1_ec_privkey_import(const secp256k1_context_t* ctx, unsigned char *s @@ -410,3 +410,10 @@ int secp256k1_ec_privkey_import(const secp256k1_context_t* ctx, unsigned char *s
secp256k1_scalar_clear(&key);
return ret;
}
int secp256k1_context_randomize(secp256k1_context_t* ctx, const unsigned char *seed32) {
DEBUG_CHECK(ctx != NULL);
DEBUG_CHECK(secp256k1_ecmult_gen_context_is_built(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx));
secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, seed32);
return 1;
}

113
src/tests.c

@ -907,6 +907,28 @@ void ge_equals_ge(const secp256k1_ge_t *a, const secp256k1_ge_t *b) { @@ -907,6 +907,28 @@ void ge_equals_ge(const secp256k1_ge_t *a, const secp256k1_ge_t *b) {
CHECK(secp256k1_fe_equal_var(&b->y, &b->y));
}
/* This compares jacobian points including their Z, not just their geometric meaning. */
int gej_xyz_equals_gej(const secp256k1_gej_t *a, const secp256k1_gej_t *b) {
secp256k1_gej_t a2;
secp256k1_gej_t b2;
int ret = 1;
ret &= a->infinity == b->infinity;
if (ret && !a->infinity) {
a2 = *a;
b2 = *b;
secp256k1_fe_normalize(&a2.x);
secp256k1_fe_normalize(&a2.y);
secp256k1_fe_normalize(&a2.z);
secp256k1_fe_normalize(&b2.x);
secp256k1_fe_normalize(&b2.y);
secp256k1_fe_normalize(&b2.z);
ret &= secp256k1_fe_cmp_var(&a2.x, &b2.x) == 0;
ret &= secp256k1_fe_cmp_var(&a2.y, &b2.y) == 0;
ret &= secp256k1_fe_cmp_var(&a2.z, &b2.z) == 0;
}
return ret;
}
void ge_equals_gej(const secp256k1_ge_t *a, const secp256k1_gej_t *b) {
secp256k1_fe_t z2s;
secp256k1_fe_t u1, u2, s1, s2;
@ -1033,6 +1055,9 @@ void test_ge(void) { @@ -1033,6 +1055,9 @@ void test_ge(void) {
secp256k1_ge_t *ge_set_all = (secp256k1_ge_t *)malloc((4 * runs + 1) * sizeof(secp256k1_ge_t));
secp256k1_ge_set_all_gej_var(4 * runs + 1, ge_set_all, gej);
for (i = 0; i < 4 * runs + 1; i++) {
secp256k1_fe_t s;
random_fe_non_zero(&s);
secp256k1_gej_rescale(&gej[i], &s);
ge_equals_gej(&ge_set_all[i], &gej[i]);
}
free(ge_set_all);
@ -1203,6 +1228,87 @@ void run_wnaf(void) { @@ -1203,6 +1228,87 @@ void run_wnaf(void) {
}
}
void test_ecmult_constants(void) {
/* Test ecmult_gen() for [0..36) and [order-36..0). */
secp256k1_scalar_t x;
secp256k1_gej_t r;
secp256k1_ge_t ng;
int i;
int j;
secp256k1_ge_neg(&ng, &secp256k1_ge_const_g);
for (i = 0; i < 36; i++ ) {
secp256k1_scalar_set_int(&x, i);
secp256k1_ecmult_gen(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, &r, &x);
for (j = 0; j < i; j++) {
if (j == i - 1) {
ge_equals_gej(&secp256k1_ge_const_g, &r);
}
secp256k1_gej_add_ge(&r, &r, &ng);
}
CHECK(secp256k1_gej_is_infinity(&r));
}
for (i = 1; i <= 36; i++ ) {
secp256k1_scalar_set_int(&x, i);
secp256k1_scalar_negate(&x, &x);
secp256k1_ecmult_gen(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, &r, &x);
for (j = 0; j < i; j++) {
if (j == i - 1) {
ge_equals_gej(&ng, &r);
}
secp256k1_gej_add_ge(&r, &r, &secp256k1_ge_const_g);
}
CHECK(secp256k1_gej_is_infinity(&r));
}
}
void run_ecmult_constants(void) {
test_ecmult_constants();
}
void test_ecmult_gen_blind(void) {
/* Test ecmult_gen() blinding and confirm that the blinding changes, the affline points match, and the z's don't match. */
secp256k1_scalar_t key;
secp256k1_scalar_t b;
unsigned char seed32[32];
secp256k1_gej_t pgej;
secp256k1_gej_t pgej2;
secp256k1_gej_t i;
secp256k1_ge_t pge;
random_scalar_order_test(&key);
secp256k1_ecmult_gen(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, &pgej, &key);
secp256k1_rand256(seed32);
b = ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.blind;
i = ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.initial;
secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, seed32);
CHECK(!secp256k1_scalar_eq(&b, &ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.blind));
secp256k1_ecmult_gen(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, &pgej2, &key);
CHECK(!gej_xyz_equals_gej(&pgej, &pgej2));
CHECK(!gej_xyz_equals_gej(&i, &ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.initial));
secp256k1_ge_set_gej(&pge, &pgej);
ge_equals_gej(&pge, &pgej2);
}
void test_ecmult_gen_blind_reset(void) {
/* Test ecmult_gen() blinding reset and confirm that the blinding is consistent. */
secp256k1_scalar_t b;
secp256k1_gej_t initial;
secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, 0);
b = ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.blind;
initial = ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.initial;
secp256k1_ecmult_gen_blind(&ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx, 0);
CHECK(secp256k1_scalar_eq(&b, &ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.blind));
CHECK(gej_xyz_equals_gej(&initial, &ctx->ecmult_gen_ctx.initial));
}
void run_ecmult_gen_blind(void) {
int i;
test_ecmult_gen_blind_reset();
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
test_ecmult_gen_blind();
}
}
void random_sign(secp256k1_ecdsa_sig_t *sig, const secp256k1_scalar_t *key, const secp256k1_scalar_t *msg, int *recid) {
secp256k1_scalar_t nonce;
do {
@ -1913,6 +2019,11 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv) { @@ -1913,6 +2019,11 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv) {
run_context_tests();
ctx = secp256k1_context_create(SECP256K1_CONTEXT_SIGN | SECP256K1_CONTEXT_VERIFY);
if (secp256k1_rand32() & 1) {
secp256k1_rand256(run32);
CHECK(secp256k1_context_randomize(ctx, secp256k1_rand32() & 1 ? run32 : NULL));
}
run_sha256_tests();
run_hmac_sha256_tests();
run_rfc6979_hmac_sha256_tests();
@ -1941,6 +2052,8 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv) { @@ -1941,6 +2052,8 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv) {
run_wnaf();
run_point_times_order();
run_ecmult_chain();
run_ecmult_constants();
run_ecmult_gen_blind();
/* ecdsa tests */
run_random_pubkeys();

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