Notes for Computer Information Technology 160
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October 15 - Networking Commands


ifconfig - configure a network interface

ip - show / manipulate routing, network devices, interfaces and tunnels

netstat - Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships

ping - send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts

traceroute, tracepath, tracepath6 - traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path

host - DNS lookup utility

nslookup - query Internet name servers interactively

dig - DNS lookup utility

Range in Bash

if (( $variable < 0 ))
    echo "too low"
elif (( $variable <= 10 ))
    echo "variable is in range 0-10"
elif (( $variable <= 20 ))
    echo "variable is in range 11-20"
    echo "variable is larger than 20"

Ping and Traceroute

Ping sends an echo request to a server, if the server responds then you and the server are online.

Traceroute shows the route taken to the server.

IP Addresses

Class B

Class D is rarely used

A Class A private address is and cannot be accessed from the internet

B is /16

C is /8 is the loopback address, it sends packets to localhost, the computer that send it