There are multiple ways to get to where you want to go.
When you call someone, you look them up in your contacts, when you go to
www.google.com, your computer looks up its ip address in Domain Name System
An ip (v4) address is always in this format: XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX, for example, 127.0.0.1
There are more internet devices than possible IPv4 addresses, so IPv6 was created.
An IPv6 address is represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, each group representing 16 bits (two octets, a group sometimes also called a hextet). The groups are separated by colons (:). An example of an IPv6 address is:
A single piece of data can be packages which multiple parts like the return address on a letter:
[ Header (layer 2) | IP Header(layer 3) | UDP Header (layer 4) | DATA (layer 7) | Footer (layer 2) ]
[ address | port ][ address | port ]
[ source name ][destination name]
$ ping example.com
do a dns lookup of example.com then send an ICMP “echo” message, the server should send one back