Browse Source

Gentle formatting fixes we can run more often. (#443)

Fixes a bunch of inadvertently preformatted text due to >4 spaces after a bullet.
pull/444/head
Joshua Levy 3 years ago
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5e5be52f99
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README.md View File

@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ General Information
- **Hybrid cloud:** In larger enterprises, it is common to have [hybrid deployments](https://aws.amazon.com/enterprise/hybrid/) encompassing private cloud or on-premises servers and AWS — or other enterprise cloud providers like [IBM](https://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/solutions/hybrid-cloud)/[Bluemix](http://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/bluemix/hybrid/), [Microsoft](https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/cloud-platform/hybrid-cloud)/[Azure](https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/overview/azure-stack/), [NetApp](http://www.netapp.com/us/solutions/cloud/hybrid-cloud/), or [EMC](http://www.emc.com/en-us/cloud/hybrid-cloud-computing/index.htm).
- **Major customers:** Who uses AWS and Google Cloud?
- AWS’s [list of customers](https://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/) includes large numbers of mainstream online properties and major brands, such as Netflix, Pinterest, Spotify (moving to Google Cloud), Airbnb, Expedia, Yelp, Zynga, Comcast, Nokia, and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
- Azure’s [list of customers](https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/case-studies/) includes companies such as NBC Universal, 3M and Honeywell Inc.
- Azure’s [list of customers](https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/case-studies/) includes companies such as NBC Universal, 3M and Honeywell Inc.
- Google Cloud’s [list of customers](https://cloud.google.com/customers/) is large as well, and includes a few mainstream sites, such as [Snapchat](http://www.businessinsider.com/snapchat-is-built-on-googles-cloud-2014-1), Best Buy, Domino’s, and Sony Music.

### Which Services to Use
@@ -544,7 +544,7 @@ This guide is about AWS, not DevOps or server configuration management in genera

- ❗**Timezone settings on servers**: unless *absolutely necessary*, always **set the timezone on servers to [UTC](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time)** (see instructions for your distribution, such as [Ubuntu](https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-set-up-timezone-and-ntp-synchronization-on-ubuntu-14-04-quickstart), [CentOS](https://www.vultr.com/docs/setup-timezone-and-ntp-on-centos-6) or [Amazon](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/set-time.html) Linux). Numerous distributed systems rely on time for synchronization and coordination and UTC [provides](https://blog.serverdensity.com/set-your-server-timezone-to-utc/) the universal reference plane: it is not subject to daylight savings changes and adjustments in local time. It will also save you a lot of headache debugging [elusive timezone issues](http://yellerapp.com/posts/2015-01-12-the-worst-server-setup-you-can-make.html) and provide coherent timeline of events in your logging and audit systems.
- **NTP and accurate time:** If you are not using Amazon Linux (which comes preconfigured), you should confirm your servers [configure NTP correctly](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/set-time.html#configure_ntp), to avoid insidious time drift (which can then cause all sorts of issues, from breaking API calls to misleading logs). This should be part of your automatic configuration for every server. If time has already drifted substantially (generally >1000 seconds), remember NTP won’t shift it back, so you may need to remediate manually (for example, [like this](http://askubuntu.com/questions/254826/how-to-force-a-clock-update-using-ntp) on Ubuntu).
- **Testing immutable infrastructure:** If you want to be proactive about testing your service’s ability to cope with instance termination or failure, it can be helpful to introduce random instance termination during business hours, which will expose any such issues at a time when engineers are available to identify and fix them. Netflix’s [Simian Army](https://github.com/Netflix/SimianArmy) (specifically, [Chaos Monkey](https://github.com/Netflix/SimianArmy/wiki/Chaos-Monkey)) is a popular tool for this. Alternatively, [chaos-lambda](https://github.com/bbc/chaos-lambda) by the BBC is a lightweight option which runs on AWS [Lambda](#lambda).
- **Testing immutable infrastructure:** If you want to be proactive about testing your service’s ability to cope with instance termination or failure, it can be helpful to introduce random instance termination during business hours, which will expose any such issues at a time when engineers are available to identify and fix them. Netflix’s [Simian Army](https://github.com/Netflix/SimianArmy) (specifically, [Chaos Monkey](https://github.com/Netflix/SimianArmy/wiki/Chaos-Monkey)) is a popular tool for this. Alternatively, [chaos-lambda](https://github.com/bbc/chaos-lambda) by the BBC is a lightweight option which runs on AWS [Lambda](#lambda).

Security and IAM
----------------
@@ -564,7 +564,7 @@ We cover security basics first, since configuring user accounts is something you
- 📜 Access keys that start with AKIA are normal keys. Access keys that start with ASIA are session/temporary keys from STS, and will require an additional "SessionToken" parameter to be sent along with the id and secret.
- [**Multi-factor authentication (MFA)**](https://aws.amazon.com/iam/details/mfa/), which is the highly recommended practice of using a keychain fob or smartphone app as a second layer of protection for user authentication.
- IAM allows complex and fine-grained control of permissions, dividing users into groups, assigning permissions to roles, and so on. There is a [policy language](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/access_policies.html) that can be used to customize security policies in a fine-grained way.
- An excellent high level overview of IAM policy concepts lives at [IAM Policies In A Nutshell](http://start.jcolemorrison.com/aws-iam-policies-in-a-nutshell/).
- An excellent high level overview of IAM policy concepts lives at [IAM Policies In A Nutshell](http://start.jcolemorrison.com/aws-iam-policies-in-a-nutshell/).
- 🔸The policy language has a complex and error-prone JSON syntax that’s quite confusing, so unless you are an expert, it is wise to base yours off trusted examples or AWS’ own pre-defined [managed policies](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/IAM/latest/UserGuide/access_policies_managed-vs-inline.html).
- At the beginning, IAM policy may be very simple, but for large systems, it will grow in complexity, and need to be managed with care.
- 🔹Make sure one person (perhaps with a backup) in your organization is formally assigned ownership of managing IAM policies, make sure every administrator works with that person to have changes reviewed. This goes a long way to avoiding accidental and serious misconfigurations.
@@ -604,7 +604,7 @@ We cover security basics first, since configuring user accounts is something you
- Cost of multi-account “overhead”: Internal AWS service management tools may need to be custom built or adapted.
- 🔹It can help to use separate AWS accounts for independent parts of your infrastructure if you expect a high rate of AWS API calls, since AWS [throttles calls](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/APIReference/query-api-troubleshooting.html#api-request-rate) at the AWS account level.
- [**Inspector**](https://aws.amazon.com/inspector/) is an automated security assessment service from AWS that helps identify common security risks. This allows validation that you adhere to certain security practices and may help with compliance.
- [**Trusted Advisor**](https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/trusted-advisor-console-basic/) addresses a variety of best practices, but also offers some basic security checks around IAM usage, security group configurations, and MFA. At paid support tiers, Trusted Advisor exposes additional checks around other areas, such as reserved instance optimization.
- [**Trusted Advisor**](https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/trusted-advisor-console-basic/) addresses a variety of best practices, but also offers some basic security checks around IAM usage, security group configurations, and MFA. At paid support tiers, Trusted Advisor exposes additional checks around other areas, such as reserved instance optimization.
- **Use KMS for managing keys**: AWS offers [KMS](#kms) for securely managing encryption keys, which is usually a far better option than handling key security yourself. See [below](#kms).
- [**AWS WAF**](https://aws.amazon.com/waf) is a web application firewall to help you protect your applications from common attack patterns.
- **Security auditing:**
@@ -795,13 +795,13 @@ EC2
- ❗When creating an instance and using a new ssh key pair, [make sure the ssh key permissions are correct](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1454629/aws-ssh-access-permission-denied-publickey-issue).
- 🔸Sometimes certain EC2 instances can get scheduled for retirement by AWS due to “detected degradation of the underlying hardware,” in which case you are given a couple of weeks to migrate to a new instance
- If your instance root device is an EBS volume, you can typically stop and then start the instance which moves it to healthy host hardware, giving you control over timing of this event. Note however that you will lose any instance store volume data ([ephemeral drives](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/InstanceStorage.html)) if your instance type has instance store volumes.
- The instance public IP (if it has one) will likely change unless you're using Elastic IPs. This could be a problem if other systems depend on the IP address.
- The instance public IP (if it has one) will likely change unless you're using Elastic IPs. This could be a problem if other systems depend on the IP address.
- 🔸Periodically you may find that your server or load balancer is receiving traffic for (presumably) a previous EC2 server that was running at the same IP address that you are handed out now (this may not matter, or it can be fixed by migrating to another new instance).
- ❗If the EC2 API itself is a critical dependency of your infrastructure (e.g. for automated server replacement, custom scaling algorithms, etc.) and you are running at a large scale or making many EC2 API calls, make sure that you understand when they might fail (calls to it are [rate limited](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/APIReference/query-api-troubleshooting.html#api-request-rate) and the limits are not published and subject to change) and code and test against that possibility.
- ❗Many newer EC2 instance types are EBS-only. Make sure to factor in EBS performance and costs when planning to use them.
- ❗⏱ Instances come in two types: **Fixed Performance Instances** (e.g. M3, C3, and R3) and [**Burstable Performance Instances**](https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/#burst) (e.g. T2). A T2 instance receives CPU credits continuously, the rate of which depends on the instance size. T2 instances accrue CPU credits when they are idle, and use CPU credits when they are active. However, once an instance runs out of credits, you'll notice a severe degradation in performance. If you need consistently high CPU performance for applications such as video encoding, high volume websites or HPC applications, it is recommended to use Fixed Performance Instances.
- Instance user-data is [limited to 16 KB](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ec2-instance-metadata.html#instancedata-add-user-data). (This limit applies to the data in raw form, not base64-encoded form.) If more data is needed, it can be downloaded from S3 by a user-data script.
- Very new accounts may not be able to launch some instance types, such as GPU instances, because of an initially imposed “soft limit” of zero. This limit can be raised by making a support request. See [AWS Service Limits](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws_service_limits.html) for the method to make the support request. Note that this limit of zero is [not currently documented](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws_service_limits.html#limits_ec2).
- Instance user-data is [limited to 16 KB](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ec2-instance-metadata.html#instancedata-add-user-data). (This limit applies to the data in raw form, not base64-encoded form.) If more data is needed, it can be downloaded from S3 by a user-data script.
- Very new accounts may not be able to launch some instance types, such as GPU instances, because of an initially imposed “soft limit” of zero. This limit can be raised by making a support request. See [AWS Service Limits](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws_service_limits.html) for the method to make the support request. Note that this limit of zero is [not currently documented](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws_service_limits.html#limits_ec2).

CloudWatch
-------------------
@@ -948,8 +948,8 @@ EFS

### EFS Tips

- With EFS being based on NFSv4.1, any directory on the EFS can be mounted directly, it doesn't have to be the root directory. One application could mount *fs-12345678:/prog1*, another *fs-12345678:/prog2*.
- [User and group level permissions](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/efs/latest/ug/accessing-fs-nfs-permissions.html) can be used to control access to certain directories on the EFS file system.
- With EFS being based on NFSv4.1, any directory on the EFS can be mounted directly, it doesn't have to be the root directory. One application could mount *fs-12345678:/prog1*, another *fs-12345678:/prog2*.
- [User and group level permissions](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/efs/latest/ug/accessing-fs-nfs-permissions.html) can be used to control access to certain directories on the EFS file system.
- ⏱ **Sharing EFS filesystems:** One EFS filesystem can be used for multiple applications or services, but it should be considered carefully:

Pros:
@@ -1419,10 +1419,10 @@ CloudFormation
- 🔸Avoid hardcoding resource parameters that can potentially change. Use stack parameters as much as you can, and resort to default parameter values.
- 🔹Until [2016](https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/whats-new/2016/09/aws-cloudformation-introduces-yaml-template-support-and-cross-stack-references/), CloudFormation used only an awkward JSON format that makes both reading and debugging difficult. To use it effectively typically involved building additional tooling, including converting it to YAML, but now [this is supported directly](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/template-formats.html).
- Wherever possible, export relevant [physical IDs](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/aws-properties-name.html) from your Stacks by defining [Outputs in your CloudFormation Templates](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/outputs-section-structure.html). These are the actual names assigned to the resources being created. Outputs can be returned from `DescribeStack` API calls, and get imported to other Stacks as part of the [recent addition](https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/whats-new/2016/09/aws-cloudformation-introduces-yaml-template-support-and-cross-stack-references/) of [cross-stack references](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/walkthrough-crossstackref.html).
- CloudFormation can be set up to [send SNS notifications](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/cfn-console-add-tags.html) upon state changes, enabling programatic handling of situations where stacks fail to build, or simple email alerts so the appropriate people are informed.
- CloudFormation allows the use of [**conditionals**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/conditions-section-structure.html) when creating a stack.
- One common way to leverage this capability is in support of multi-environment CloudFormation templates – by configuring them to use ‘if-else’ statements on the value of a [parameter passed in](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/parameters-section-structure.html) (e.g. “env”), environment-specific values for things like VPC IDs, SecurityGroup IDs, and AMI names can be passed into reusable generic templates.
- **Version control your CloudFormation templates!** In the Cloud, an application is the combination of the code written and the infrastructure it runs on. By version controlling **both**, it is easy to roll back to known good states.
- CloudFormation can be set up to [send SNS notifications](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/cfn-console-add-tags.html) upon state changes, enabling programatic handling of situations where stacks fail to build, or simple email alerts so the appropriate people are informed.
- CloudFormation allows the use of [**conditionals**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/conditions-section-structure.html) when creating a stack.
- One common way to leverage this capability is in support of multi-environment CloudFormation templates – by configuring them to use ‘if-else’ statements on the value of a [parameter passed in](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSCloudFormation/latest/UserGuide/parameters-section-structure.html) (e.g. “env”), environment-specific values for things like VPC IDs, SecurityGroup IDs, and AMI names can be passed into reusable generic templates.
- **Version control your CloudFormation templates!** In the Cloud, an application is the combination of the code written and the infrastructure it runs on. By version controlling **both**, it is easy to roll back to known good states.

### CloudFormation Gotchas and Limitations

@@ -1455,7 +1455,7 @@ VPCs, Network Security, and Security Groups
- e.g. A bug in the YAML parser used by the Ruby on Rails admin site is much less serious when the admin site is only visible to the private network and accessed through VPN.
- Another common pattern (especially as deployments get larger, security or regulatory requirements get more stringent, or team sizes increase) is to provide a [bastion host](https://www.pandastrike.com/posts/20141113-bastion-hosts) behind a VPN through which all SSH connections need to transit.
- 🔹Consider using other security groups as sources for security group rules instead of using CIDRs — that way, all hosts in the source security group and only hosts in that security group are allowed access. This is a much more dynamic and secure way of managing security group rules.
- **VPC Flow Logs** allow you to monitor the network traffic to, from, and within your VPC. Logs are stored in CloudWatch Logs groups, and can be used for security monitoring (with third party tools), performance evaluation, and forensic investigation.
- **VPC Flow Logs** allow you to monitor the network traffic to, from, and within your VPC. Logs are stored in CloudWatch Logs groups, and can be used for security monitoring (with third party tools), performance evaluation, and forensic investigation.
- See the [VPC Flow Logs User Guide](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/flow-logs.html) for basic information.
- See the [flowlogs-reader](https://github.com/obsrvbl/flowlogs-reader) CLI tool and Python library to retrieve and work with VPC Flow Logs.
- **IPv6** [is available in VPC](https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-ipv6-support-for-ec2-instances-in-virtual-private-clouds/). Along with this announcement came the introduction of the [Egress-Only Internet Gateway](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/egress-only-internet-gateway.html). In cases where one would use NAT Gateways to enable egress-only traffic for their VPC in IPv4, one can use an Egress-Only Internet Gateway for the same purpose in IPv6.
@@ -1529,8 +1529,8 @@ CloudFront
### CloudFront Gotchas and Limitations

- 🔸If using S3 as a backing store, remember that the endpoints for website hosting and for general S3 are different. Example: “bucketname.s3.amazonaws.com” is a standard S3 serving endpoint, but to have redirect and error page support, you need to use the website hosting endpoint listed for that bucket, e.g. “bucketname.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com” (or the appropriate region).
- 🔸By default, CloudFront will not forward HTTP Host: headers through to your origin servers. This can be problematic for your origin if you run multiple sites switched with host headers. You can [enable host header forwarding](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/RequestAndResponseBehaviorCustomOrigin.html#request-custom-headers-behavior) in the default cache behavior settings.
- 🔸4096-bit SSL certificates: CloudFront do not support 4096-bit SSL certificates as of late 2016. If you are using an externally issued SSL certificate, you’ll need to make sure it’s 2048 bits. See [ongoing discussion](https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=148783).
- 🔸By default, CloudFront will not forward HTTP Host: headers through to your origin servers. This can be problematic for your origin if you run multiple sites switched with host headers. You can [enable host header forwarding](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/RequestAndResponseBehaviorCustomOrigin.html#request-custom-headers-behavior) in the default cache behavior settings.
- 🔸4096-bit SSL certificates: CloudFront do not support 4096-bit SSL certificates as of late 2016. If you are using an externally issued SSL certificate, you’ll need to make sure it’s 2048 bits. See [ongoing discussion](https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=148783).
- Although connections from clients to CloudFront edge servers can make use of IPv6, [connections to the origin server will continue to use IPv4.](https://aws.amazon.com/about-aws/whats-new/2016/10/ipv6-support-for-cloudfront-waf-and-s3-transfer-acceleration/)

DirectConnect
@@ -1571,7 +1571,7 @@ Redshift
- [Top 10 Performance Tuning Techniques for Amazon Redshift](https://blogs.aws.amazon.com/bigdata/post/Tx31034QG0G3ED1/Top-10-Performance-Tuning-Techniques-for-Amazon-Redshift) provides an excellent list of performance tuning techniques.
- [Amazon Redshift Utils](https://github.com/awslabs/amazon-redshift-utils) contains useful utilities, scripts and views to simplify Redshift ops.
- [VACUUM](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/t_Reclaiming_storage_space202.html) regularly following a significant number of deletes or updates to reclaim space and improve query performance.
- Avoid performing blanket [VACUUM](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_VACUUM_command.html) or [ANALYZE](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_ANALYZE.html) operations at a cluster level. The checks on each table to determine whether VACUUM or ANALYZE action needs to be taken is wasteful. Only perform ANALYZE and VACUUM commands on the objects that require it. Utilize the [Analyze & Vacuum Schema Utility](https://github.com/awslabs/amazon-redshift-utils/tree/master/src/AnalyzeVacuumUtility) to perform this work. The SQL to determine whether a table needs to be VACUUMed or ANALYZEd can be found in the [Schema Utility README](https://github.com/awslabs/amazon-redshift-utils/blob/master/src/AnalyzeVacuumUtility/README.md) if you wish to create your own maintenance process.
- Avoid performing blanket [VACUUM](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_VACUUM_command.html) or [ANALYZE](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_ANALYZE.html) operations at a cluster level. The checks on each table to determine whether VACUUM or ANALYZE action needs to be taken is wasteful. Only perform ANALYZE and VACUUM commands on the objects that require it. Utilize the [Analyze & Vacuum Schema Utility](https://github.com/awslabs/amazon-redshift-utils/tree/master/src/AnalyzeVacuumUtility) to perform this work. The SQL to determine whether a table needs to be VACUUMed or ANALYZEd can be found in the [Schema Utility README](https://github.com/awslabs/amazon-redshift-utils/blob/master/src/AnalyzeVacuumUtility/README.md) if you wish to create your own maintenance process.
- Redshift provides various [column compression](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/t_Compressing_data_on_disk.html) options to optimize the stored data size. AWS strongly encourages users to use [automatic compression](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/c_Loading_tables_auto_compress.html) at the COPY stage, when Redshift uses a sample of the data being ingested to analyze the column compression options. However, automatic compression can only be applied to an empty table with no data. Therefore, make sure the initial load batch is big enough to provide Redshift with a representative sample of the data (the default sample size is 100000 rows).
- Redshift uses columnar storage, hence it does not have indexing capabilities. You can, however, use distribution key [distkey](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/c_best-practices-best-dist-key.html) and sort key [sortkey](docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/c_best-practices-sort-key.html) to improve performance. Redshift has two type of sort keys: compounding sort key and interleaved sort key.
- A compound sort key is made up of all columns listed in the sort key definition. It is most useful when you have queries with operations using prefix of the sortkey.
@@ -1633,8 +1633,8 @@ Kinesis Streams
### Kinesis Streams Alternatives and Lock-in

- 🚪 Kinesis is most closely compared to [Apache Kafka](https://kafka.apache.org/), an open-source data ingestion solution. It is possible to set up a Kafka cluster hosted on [EC2 instances](#ec2) (or any other VPS), however you are responsible for managing and maintaining both Zookeeper and the Kafka brokers in a highly available configuration. Confluent has a good blog post with their recommendations on how to do this [here](http://www.confluent.io/blog/design-and-deployment-considerations-for-deploying-apache-kafka-on-aws/), which has links on the bottom to several other blogs they have written on the subject.
- ⛓ Kinesis uses very AWS-specific APIs, so you should be aware of the potential future costs of migrating away from it, should you choose to use it.
- An application that efficiently uses Kinesis Streams will scale the number of shards up and down based on the required streaming capacity. (Note there is no direct equivalent to this with Apache Kafka.)
- ⛓ Kinesis uses very AWS-specific APIs, so you should be aware of the potential future costs of migrating away from it, should you choose to use it.
- An application that efficiently uses Kinesis Streams will scale the number of shards up and down based on the required streaming capacity. (Note there is no direct equivalent to this with Apache Kafka.)


### Kinesis Streams Tips
@@ -1715,7 +1715,7 @@ IoT
- Support for **device security** via certificate processing is a key differentiator in this space. In August 2016, AWS added [just-in-time registrations](https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/iot/just-in-time-registration-of-device-certificates-on-aws-iot/) for IoT devices to their services.
- **Combining with other services:** It’s common to use other AWS services, such as AWS Lambda, Kinesis and DynamoDB, although this is by no means required. Sample IoT application reference architectures are in this [screencast](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Izh6ySpwb8/).
- **Testing tools:**
* To get started, AWS includes a lightweight MQTT client in the AWS IoT console. Here you can create and test sending and receiving messages to and from various MQTT topics.
* To get started, AWS includes a lightweight MQTT client in the AWS IoT console. Here you can create and test sending and receiving messages to and from various MQTT topics.
* When testing locally, if using MQTT, it may be helpful to download and use the open source [Mosquitto broker](https://mosquitto.org/download/) tool for local testing with devices and/or device simulators
* Use this [MQTT load simulator](https://github.com/awslabs/aws-iot-mqtt-load-generator) to test device message load throughout your IoT solution.

@@ -1741,17 +1741,17 @@ SES

### SES Basics

- 📒 [Homepage](https://aws.amazon.com/ses/) ∙ [Documentation](https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/ses/) ∙ [FAQ](https://aws.amazon.com/ses/faqs/) ∙ [Pricing](https://aws.amazon.com/ses/pricing/)
- **SES** (or Simple Email Service) is a service that exposes SMTP endpoints for your application to directly integrate with.
- 📒 [Homepage](https://aws.amazon.com/ses/) ∙ [Documentation](https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/ses/) ∙ [FAQ](https://aws.amazon.com/ses/faqs/) ∙ [Pricing](https://aws.amazon.com/ses/pricing/)
- **SES** (or Simple Email Service) is a service that exposes SMTP endpoints for your application to directly integrate with.

### SES Tips

- 🔹**Bounce Handling:** Make sure you handle this early enough. Your ability to send emails can be removed if SES sees [too many bounces](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/best-practices-bounces-complaints.html).
- 🔹**Credentials:** Many developers get confused between [SES credentials](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/using-credentials.html) and AWS API keys. Make sure to enter [SMTP credentials](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/smtp-credentials.html) while using the SMTP APIs.
- 🔹**Bounce Handling:** Make sure you handle this early enough. Your ability to send emails can be removed if SES sees [too many bounces](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/best-practices-bounces-complaints.html).
- 🔹**Credentials:** Many developers get confused between [SES credentials](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/using-credentials.html) and AWS API keys. Make sure to enter [SMTP credentials](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/smtp-credentials.html) while using the SMTP APIs.

### SES Gotchas and Limitations

- 🔸**Internet Access:** SES SMTP endpoints are on the Internet and will not be accessible from a location without Internet access (e.g. a private subnet without NAT gateway route in the routing table). In such a case, set up an SMTP relay instance in a subnet with Internet access and configure your application to send emails to this SMTP relay instance rather than SES. The relay should have a [forwarding rule to send all emails to SES](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/send-email-smtp-existing-server.html)). ❗If you are using a proxy instead of a NAT, confirm that your proxy service supports SMTP.
- 🔸**Internet Access:** SES SMTP endpoints are on the Internet and will not be accessible from a location without Internet access (e.g. a private subnet without NAT gateway route in the routing table). In such a case, set up an SMTP relay instance in a subnet with Internet access and configure your application to send emails to this SMTP relay instance rather than SES. The relay should have a [forwarding rule to send all emails to SES](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/ses/latest/DeveloperGuide/send-email-smtp-existing-server.html)). ❗If you are using a proxy instead of a NAT, confirm that your proxy service supports SMTP.

Certificate Manager
-------------------
@@ -1768,13 +1768,13 @@ Certificate Manager

### Certificate Manager Tips

- 🔹**Supported services:** Managed [Load Balancers](#load-balancers) and [CloudFront](#cloudfront).
- 🔹**Supported services:** Managed [Load Balancers](#load-balancers) and [CloudFront](#cloudfront).
- 🔸During the domain validation process, Certificate Manager will send an email to every contact address specified in the domain’s WHOIS record and up to five common administrative addresses. Some anti-spam filters can mark emails as spam because of this. You should check the spam folder of your email if you don’t receive a confirmation email.

### Certificate Manager Gotchas and Limitations

- 🔸In order to use **Certificate Manager** for CloudFront distributions certificate must be issued or imported from us-east-1 (N. Virginia) region. Certificates from other regions can [only be used with Elastic Load Balancers](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/acm/latest/userguide/acm-services.html).
- 🔸**IoT** has its [own way](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/iot/latest/developerguide/create-device-certificate.html) of setting up certificates.
- 🔸In order to use **Certificate Manager** for CloudFront distributions certificate must be issued or imported from us-east-1 (N. Virginia) region. Certificates from other regions can [only be used with Elastic Load Balancers](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/acm/latest/userguide/acm-services.html).
- 🔸**IoT** has its [own way](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/iot/latest/developerguide/create-device-certificate.html) of setting up certificates.

WAF
-------------------
@@ -1875,7 +1875,7 @@ Billing and Cost Management
- If you need to do custom analysis of raw billing data or want to feed it to a third party cost analysis service, [enable](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/awsaccountbilling/latest/aboutv2/detailed-billing-reports.html#turnonreports) the [detailed billing report](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/awsaccountbilling/latest/aboutv2/detailed-billing-reports.html#detailed-billing-report) feature.
- Multiple Amazon accounts can be linked for billing purposes using the [Consolidated Billing](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/awsaccountbilling/latest/aboutv2/consolidated-billing.html) feature. Large enterprises may need complex billing structures depending on ownership and approval processes.
- Multiple Amazon accounts can be managed centrally using [AWS Organizations](https://aws.amazon.com/organizations/).
- 🔸 Be aware that if an AWS account has been created through the AWS Organizations console, API, or CLI, it can never leave that organization.
- 🔸 Be aware that if an AWS account has been created through the AWS Organizations console, API, or CLI, it can never leave that organization.

### AWS Data Transfer Costs


admin/reformat.sh → admin/reformat-aggressive.sh View File

@@ -1,6 +1,8 @@
#!/bin/bash

# Put main main Markdown files into canonical syntax (in place!) with markdownfmt.
# XXX This is aggressive so we haven't been running. See also
# https://github.com/shurcooL/markdownfmt/issues?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=is%3Aopen%20author%3Ajlevy%20

set -e -u -o pipefail


+ 16
- 0
admin/reformat-gentle.sh View File

@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
#!/bin/bash

# Gently fix common Markdown formatting errors. Should be minimally invasive.

set -e -u -o pipefail

hash repren >/dev/null 2>&1 || {
echo >&2 "repren missing: Install https://github.com/jlevy/repren and re-run"
exit 1
}

cd $(dirname $0)/..

# Extra spaces following a bullet replaced by tab per mkdownfmt convention.
# Leave other stuff alone.
repren --from '^(\s*)([-*])(\s* +\s*)' --to '\1\2\t' README.md CONTRIBUTING.md

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