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Fixes from review. Couple small additions.

Couple more notes on elastic IPs.
Emphasize not to resolve/user ELB IP addresses.
pull/31/head
Joshua Levy 4 years ago
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4ff64e0a88
1 changed files with 13 additions and 9 deletions
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      README.md

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@@ -183,9 +183,8 @@ General Information

- 📒 The AWS [**General Reference**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/Welcome.html) covers a bunch of common concepts that are relevant for multiple services.
- AWS allows deployments in [**regions**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/rande.html), which are isolated geographic locations that help you reduce latency or offer additional redundancy (though typically availability zones are the first tool of choice for [high availability](#high-availability)).
- Each service has **endpoints** that are typically different for each service.
- Endpoints differ from service to service and not all services are available in each region, as listed in [these tables](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/rande.html).
- [**Amazon Resource Names (ARNs)**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws-arns-and-namespaces.html) are specially formatted identifiers for identifying resources. They start with 'arn:' and used in many services, and in particular for IAM policies.
- Each service has API **endpoints** for each region. Endpoints differ from service to service and not all services are available in each region, as listed in [these tables](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/rande.html).
- [**Amazon Resource Names (ARNs)**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws-arns-and-namespaces.html) are specially formatted identifiers for identifying resources. They start with 'arn:' and are used in many services, and in particular for IAM policies.

### Service Matrix

@@ -476,7 +475,7 @@ S3
### Basics

- 📒 [Homepage](https://aws.amazon.com/s3/) ∙ [Developer guide](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/Welcome.html) ∙ [FAQ](https://aws.amazon.com/s3/faqs/)
- **S3** (Simple Storage Service) is AWS’ standard cloud storage service, offering file (blob) storage of arbitrary number of files of small or large size (from 0 to 5 terabytes).
- **S3** (Simple Storage Service) is AWS’ standard cloud storage service, offering file (opaque “blob”) storage of arbitrary numbers of files of almost any size, from 0 to 5 TB. (Prior to [2011](https://aws.amazon.com/releasenotes/Amazon-S3/1917932037969964) the maximum size was 5 GB; larger sizes are now well supported via [multipart support](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/mpuoverview.html).)
- Items, or **objects**, are placed into named **buckets** stored with names which are usually called **keys**. The main content is the **value**.
- Objects are created, deleted, or updated. Large objects can be streamed, but you cannot access or modify parts of a value; you need to update the whole object.
- Every object also has [**metadata**](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/UsingMetadata.html), which includes arbitrary key-value pairs, and is used in a way similar to HTTP headers. Some metadata is system-defined, some are significant when serving HTTP content from buckets or CloudFront, and you can also define arbitrary metadata for your own use.
@@ -487,7 +486,7 @@ S3

- For most practical purposes, you can consider S3 capacity unlimited, both in total size of files and number of objects.
- **Bucket naming:** Buckets are chosen from a global namespace (across all regions, even though S3 itself stores data in [whichever S3 region](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/rande.html#s3_region) you select), so you’ll find many bucket names are already taken. Creating a bucket means taking ownership of the name until you delete it. Bucket names have [a few restrictions](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/BucketRestrictions.html) on them.
- A common practice is to use the company name acronym or abbreviation to prefix all bucket names (but please, don’t be stupid and use a check on a bucket prefix as a security measure).
- A common practice is to use the company name acronym or abbreviation to prefix all bucket names (but please, don’t use a check on a bucket prefix as a security measure — this is highly insecure and easily circumvented!).
- The number of objects in a bucket is essentially unlimited. Customers routinely have millions of objects.
- **Versioning:** S3 has [optional versioning support](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/ObjectVersioning.html), so that all versions of objects are preserved on a bucket. This is mostly useful if you want an archive of changes or the ability to back out mistakes (it has none of the features of full version control systems like Git).
- **Durability:** Durability of S3 is extremely high, since internally it keeps several replicas. If you don’t delete it by accident, you can count on S3 not losing your data. (AWS offers the seemingly improbable durability rate of [99.999999999%](https://aws.amazon.com/s3/faqs/#How_durable_is_Amazon_S3), but this is a mathematical calculation based on independent failure rates and levels of replication — not a true probability estimate. Either way, S3 has had [a very good record](https://www.quora.com/Has-Amazon-S3-ever-lost-data-permanently) of durability.) Note this is *much* higher durability than EBS! If durability is less important for your application, you can use [S3 Reduced Redundancy Storage](https://aws.amazon.com/s3/reduced-redundancy/), which lowers the cost per GB, as well as the redundancy.
@@ -705,7 +704,7 @@ ELBs
- In general, ELBs are not as “smart” as some load balancers, and don’t have fancy features or fine-grained control a traditional hardware load balancer would offer. For most common cases involving sessionless apps or cookie-based sessions over HTTP, or SSL termination, they work well.
- Complex rules for directing traffic are not supported. For example, you can’t direct traffic based on a regular expression in the URL, like [HAProxy](http://www.haproxy.org/) offers.
- **Apex DNS names:** Once upon a time, you couldn’t assign an ELB to an apex DNS record (i.e. example.com instead of foo.example.com) because it needed to be an A record instead of a CNAME. This is now possible with a Route 53 alias record directly pointing to the load balancer.
- ❗ELBs have **no fixed external IP** that all clients see. For most consumer apps this doesn’t matter, but enterprise customers of yours may want this. IPs will be different for each user, and will vary unpredictably for a single client over time (within the standard [EC2 IP ranges](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws-ip-ranges.html)).
- ❗ELBs have **no fixed external IP** that all clients see. For most consumer apps this doesn’t matter, but enterprise customers of yours may want this. IPs will be different for each user, and will vary unpredictably for a single client over time (within the standard [EC2 IP ranges](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws-ip-ranges.html)). And similarly, never resolve an ELB name to an IP and put it as the value of an A record — it will work for a while, then break!
- ❗Some web clients or reverse proxies cache DNS lookups for a long time, which is problematic for ELBs, since they change their IPs. This means after a few minutes, hours, or days, your client will stop working, unless you disable DNS caching. Watch out for [Java’s settings](http://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/net/InetAddress.html) and be sure to [adjust them properly](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSSdkDocsJava/latest/DeveloperGuide/java-dg-jvm-ttl.html). Another example is nginx as a reverse proxy, which [resolves backends only at start-up](https://www.jethrocarr.com/2013/11/02/nginx-reverse-proxies-and-dns-resolution/).
- ❗It’s not unheard of for IPs to be recycled between customers without a long cool-off period. So as a client, if you cache an IP and are not using SSL (to verify the server), you might get not just errors, but responses from completely different services or companies!
- 🔸As an operator of a service behind an ELB, the latter phenomenon means you can also see puzzling or erroneous requests by clients of other companies. This is most common with clients using back-end APIs (since web browsers typically cache for a limited period).
@@ -717,14 +716,19 @@ Elastic IPs

### Basics

- 📒 [Documentation](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/elastic-ip-addresses-eip.html) ∙ [FAQ](https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#Elastic_IP)
- **Elastic IPs** are static IP addresses you can purchase from AWS to assign to EC2 instances.
- 📒 [Documentation](https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/elastic-ip-addresses-eip.html) ∙ [FAQ](https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/faqs/#Elastic_IP) ∙ [Pricing](https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/#Elastic_IP_Addresses)
- **Elastic IPs** are static IP addresses you can rent from AWS to assign to EC2 instances.
- In many situations, you don’t need elastic IPs. For example, DNS records are often better pointed to ELBs, not specific instances. But in some situations, you do need to manage and fix IP addresses of EC2 instances.

### Tips

- Elastic IPs are limited to 5 per account. It’s possible to [request more](https://console.aws.amazon.com/support/home#/case/create?issueType=service-limit-increase&limitType=service-code-elastic-ips-ec2-classic).
- If an Elastic IP is not attached to an active resource there is a small [hourly fee](https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/#Elastic_IP_Addresses).
- Elastic IPs are [no extra charge](https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/pricing/#Elastic_IP_Addresses) as long as you’re using them. They have a (small) cost when not in use, which is a mechanism to prevent people from squatting on excessive numbers of IP addresses.

### Gotchas and Limitations

- 🔸There is [officially no way](https://forums.aws.amazon.com/thread.jspa?threadID=171550) to allocate a contiguous block of IP addresses, something you may desire when giving IPs to external users. Though when allocating at once, you may get lucky and have some be part of the same CIDR block.

Glacier
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@@ -795,7 +799,7 @@ ECS
### Basics

- 📒 [Homepage](https://aws.amazon.com/ecs/) ∙ [Developer guide](http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonECS/latest/developerguide/) ∙ [FAQ](https://aws.amazon.com/ecs/faqs/)
- **ECS** (EC2 Containser Service) is a relatively new service (launched end of 2014) that manages clusters of services deployed via Docker.
- **ECS** (EC2 Container Service) is a relatively new service (launched end of 2014) that manages clusters of services deployed via Docker.
- See the [Containers and AWS](#containers-and-aws) section for more context on containers.
- ECS is growing in adoption, especially for companies that embrace microservices.
- Deploying Docker directly in EC2 yourself is another common approach to using Docker on AWS. Using ECS is not required, and ECS does not (yet) seem to be the predominant way many companies are using Docker on AWS.

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